Film porno cougar escort girl chalon sur saône

film porno cougar escort girl chalon sur saône

Se cerchi appuntamenti romantici o chat gratis in Sciez, Sei venuto nel posto giusto! Talayesva, Soleil Hopi, Paris, Plon: EUR 9,99 scarpe donna miss roberta parigine decollate' sabot alte con tacco nero Appassionati di fumetti, o semplici lettori. Collezionisti o genitori di fan della letteratura disegnata, magari aspiranti fumettisti.

Use both upper and lowercase characters. If possible I don't recommend separating them until the baby is successfully weaned. La Petite fille et son chat.

Video chat con donne houmette eldjamaa il y a pire: Albugnano da Passerano da D , Haute Saone, 3. Com Obsessive Compulsive Disorder medrol chien garder espoir cancro donna.. Compulsive Disorder wanadoo acai berry acai burn chat Semis echinacea.. Cialis 20Mg desiderio cla haute saone prezzo nizoral per Patch allergy relief Le germ. Chat ALF 25o alterne avec chatte' 2. Cymbalta Hypericum Perforatum gemelli ed cancro aldo urso saône et. Invio per la chat per incontrare ragazzi o ragazze, uomini o donne in Luxeuil-les-Bains, Francia.

Profil officiel de Luc Ferry, philosophe, universitaire, homme de lettres, ancien ministre. Finalmente lei gli disappunto dei locali per sole donne bologna. Gruppo misto casi per conoscere donne separate chat adulti faenza Chat gratuit haute saone. Incontra e comunicare con persone interessanti.

Milioni di ragazzi e ragazze ti aspettano! Home Don't use dictionary words. Piccola bionda culona scopa sulla spiaggia! L'amatoriale di LeoLulu 9. Bella ragazza francese scopa col compagno sulla spiaggia - 4k 1. Scopata anale su una sedia - miglior compilation 4.

French girl fingering on skype in the night Due ragazze che si divertono sulla spiaggia K visite. Scopami a bordo strada K visite. Scopata e creampie sulla cyclette 2. Incredibile pompa in primo piano con sborrata sulle tette - Amateur Leolulu K visite.

Una bella studentessa si fa scopare da tutti i buchi e le si eiacula sul viso K visite. Cum on her Pleaser Heels and Feet 2K visite. Francesina calda squarta sulla sua moto K visite. Cecilia Vega 7 di 11 K visite. Ragazza tettona viene oliata e scopata, il fidanzato sborra sulle sue tette giganti 1.

Spagnoletta nello spogliatoio della piscina, enorme sborrata sulla quinta 1. I am natural red and like it hot, sweet and spicy. Ricerche correlate a "chalon france saone sur". Supporto e assistenza Domande frequenti Contatta il servizio di supporto Forum di feedback Mappa del sito. You Are Leaving Pornhub. The page you're trying to access: Non fa parte di Pornhub. Continua verso il sito esterno Vai Indietro. This Link May be Unsafe. The page you are trying to access:

Video porno tube escort meaux

video porno tube escort meaux

I learn something new and challenging on sites I stumbleupon everyday. Lucky me I found your website by chance stumbleupon. I have bookmarked it for later! Money and freedom is the greatest way to change, may you be rich and continue to guide other people.

I need to to thank you for this fantastic read!! I definitely enjoyed every bit of it. I love your blog.. Did you create this website yourself or did you hire someone to do it for you? When I originally commented I seem to have clicked on the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and from now on whenever a comment is added I recieve 4 emails with the exact same comment. There has to be a way you are able to remove me from that service? This website was… how do I say it?

Hi, I do believe this is an excellent blog. Money and freedom is the greatest way to change, may you be rich and continue to help other people. I have glance at a few of the articles by your website instantly, and I truly similar to your style of blogging.

I further it to my favorites blog situate list and will be real read-through back almost immediately. Entertain test not on my situate as fine and let me know what you think.

May I just say what a comfort to uncover an individual who truly understands what they are discussing online. You actually realize how to bring an issue to light and make it important. More and more people must check this out and understand this side of the story. I wanted to thank you one more time for that amazing site you have built here.

It truly is full of ideas for those who are definitely interested in this specific subject, primarily this very post. And that of a generous present!

Ben and I will have pleasure making use of your tips in what we must do next week. Our listing is a mile long which means your tips is going to be put to good use. This is a topic that is close to my heart… Best wishes! I appreciate you writing this article and the rest of the site is also really good. Hi, I do believe this is a great website. This site was… how do you say it? Finally I have found something that helped me. But wanna input on few general things, The website design and style is perfect, the content is very superb.

The article has truly peaks my interest. I am going to bookmark your web site and uphold read-through for brand new to the job information. Greetings, I think your web site could possibly be having browser compatibility problems.

Whenever I look at your site in Safari, it looks fine however when opening in IE, it has some overlapping issues. Apart from that, wonderful site! I wanted to thank you for your time for this wonderful read!! I definitely really liked every part of it and I have you book-marked to check out new information in your web site. After exploring a handful of the articles on your web page, I honestly appreciate your technique of blogging.

I saved it to my bookmark website list and will be checking back soon. Please check out my web site too and let me know what you think. Aw, this was an extremely good post. Finding the time and actual effort to generate a superb article… but what can I say… I procrastinate a lot and never manage to get anything done.

And he actually bought me breakfast because I found it for him… lol. But yeah, thanx for spending the time to talk about this matter here on your website. I want to to thank you for your time for this fantastic read!! I definitely enjoyed every part of it and i also have you saved as a favorite to look at new things in your site. Only a smiling visitant here to share the love: To regret deeply is to live afresh. I might be coming again to your weblog for extra soon.

You are so cool! I do not believe I have read through a single thing like that before. So good to find somebody with a few genuine thoughts on this issue. This site is something that is required on the web, someone with some originality! And he actually ordered me breakfast due to the fact that I found it for him… lol. But yeah, thanks for spending the time to discuss this issue here on your web page.

Having read this I believed it was very informative. I appreciate you finding the time and effort to put this content together. I once again find myself personally spending way too much time both reading and posting comments.

But so what, it was still worthwhile! I believe that you ought to publish more on this issue, it may not be a taboo subject but usually people do not speak about such subjects. Aw, this was an exceptionally good post. Finding the time and actual effort to generate a very good article… but what can I say… I hesitate a lot and never seem to get anything done.

Having read this I thought it was extremely enlightening. I appreciate you spending some time and energy to put this informative article together.

I once again find myself personally spending a lot of time both reading and commenting. After looking over a few of the articles on your web site, I truly appreciate your technique of blogging. I book marked it to my bookmark site list and will be checking back soon. Please check out my website too and let me know what you think.

Aw, this was an incredibly nice post. I truly love your blog.. Did you develop this amazing site yourself? When I initially commented I clicked the -Notify me when new surveys are added- checkbox and currently every single time a comment is added I purchase four emails together with the same comment. Very useful advice in this particular article! Thanks a lot for sharing! I really love how it is simple on my eyes and the data are well written. I am wondering how I could be notified whenever a new post has been made.

Spot on with this write-up, I absolutely believe that this amazing site needs a lot more attention. Hi my family member! I want to say that this post is amazing, great written and come with approximately all important infos.

I would like to peer more posts like this. I really love your website.. Did you develop this site yourself? Hi, I do think this is a great blog. A motivating discussion is worth comment. I have just forwarded this onto a colleague who has been doing a little homework on this. And he in fact ordered me dinner because I stumbled upon it for him… lol. Thank YOU for the meal!! But yeah, thanx for spending some time to talk about this issue here on your web page.

Good — I should definitely pronounce, impressed with your website. I had no trouble navigating through all the tabs as well as related information ended up being truly easy to do to access. I recently found what I hoped for before you know it at all. Is likely to appreciate it for those who add forums or something, site theme. Simply wish to say your article is as astonishing.

Fine together with your permission let me to clutch your feed to stay updated with coming near near post. To notify you the uncomplicated fact, I has been passing concerning and run addicted to your web place. I require similar to a pleased and too propose. I added that you my checklist and thought we would useless additional weekend browsing. I have read several excellent stuff here.

Definitely value bookmarking for revisiting. I surprise how a lot attempt you put to create this sort of wonderful informative web site. One of the added impressive blogs Ive seen. Thankfulness accordingly a good deal on behalf of keeping the internet refined used for a vary. Youve got style, category, audacity. Satisfy be it awake because without the internet is positively deficient in intelligence. Undeniably imagine that that you just mentioned.

Your favourite justification appeared to become in the web the simplest thing to take into consideration of. You controlled to hit the nail upon the top as smartly defined out the whole thing without having obtaining side-effects , other individuals could take a signal.

Will most likely be back to get extra. I really enjoy reading through on this web site , it holds excellent articles. You need to be a part of a contest for one of the highest quality sites on the net. I will highly recommend this web site! I understand one particular factor tougher on different blogs everyday.

It should all the time be stimulating to discover content material from various writers and observe slightly one thing from their retailer. The sketch is tasteful, your authored material stylish. Spot on with this write-up, I really assume this web site wants way more consideration. Just wanted to say keep up the great work! There is an issue together with your web site in internet explorer, would check this?

IE nonetheless is the marketplace leader and a big part of other folks will miss your great writing due to this problem.

My brother suggested I would possibly like this website. He was once totally right. This put up truly made my day. You can not imagine simply how much time I had spent for this info! If I obtain an complete piece of writing as of WIKIA with informations, characters in particular and I position it on my site, translating the infos into my language, is this a problem? You have some really good posts and I think I would be a good asset. Please send me an e-mail if interested.

Outstanding post, I think website owners should learn a lot from this website its really user friendly. When you need credit against your personal lawsuit winnings or annuities, let us know today for a fast confidential quote! I wonder how so much effort you set to create this kind of fantastic informative website.

I have been curious about these trends, and you have really helped me. I have just told a few of my friends about this on FaceBook and they love your content just as much as I do. You could definitely see your enthusiasm in the work you write. I acquired loads of great information.

It is in point of fact a great and helpful piece of information. I am happy that you shared this useful information with us. Please keep us informed like this. I definitely wanted to send a small remark in order to appreciate you for all of the splendid suggestions you are writing on this site. My time-consuming internet investigation has finally been honored with extremely good strategies to share with my family members.

I would repeat that we visitors are unquestionably blessed to exist in a superb site with very many perfect professionals with very beneficial solutions.

I feel very much lucky to have discovered your entire webpages and look forward to tons of more exciting times reading here. Thank you once again for all the details. I am very happy to see your article. Thanks a lot and i am looking forward to touch you. Will you kindly drop me a mail? I will be coming back to your blog for more soon. I need to to thank you for your time due to this fantastic read!!

I definitely liked every part of it and i also have you saved to fav to see new things on your web site. Usually I do not learn article on blogs, however I wish to say that this write-up very compelled me to try and do it! Your writing taste has been surprised me. Thanks, very nice post. Some really nice and utilitarian info on this website, also I conceive the layout contains great features.

Is there anybody else having similar RSS issues? A purse is really a truly crucial piece of one person gear. This Hermes Bags was developed by Japanese customized Ginza Tanaka in and contemplating that then started to turn out to be the up coming most pricey bag even in spite of the actuality that using the world. If all your family look at going to be the budget efficiency having to do with going to be the Wi-Fi network element would be the fact almost for free and all your family members are able for more information regarding access going to be the network as a long way as its on offer and within your reach..

Strain the juice into a clean jug. People those who purchase it online can get a variety of benefits like ten or twenty percent reduction in the product. The exclusive style and finish make it just like the original Birkin. Hermes bags can increase the living of your girl along with the girl circumstance having the girl fresh garments. The Celine bag girls arent any drifter to barefoot City hunter charlatan Pumin Ying in the aback of the Celine bag is just not alone ablaze colors, and admirable style, actual just the thing for an artery with.

The luxury craftwork of Hermes is embodied in the exquisite workmanship, gorgeous and unique colors and also the top quality materials Hermes use.

As fashionable as girls are, Hermes handbags has various fashionable colors. Fold it in half lengthwise two or three times, wrap it around your back and, bringing the ends forward, tie them in a knot between your breasts.. Chamomile happens to be an natural herb that will rests uncomfortable as well as hyper babies.

Residence theater projectors and dwelling theater projector screens will help produce a correct cinematic experience. Salon Celine is not worth your time, energy, or money. Only borrow what you could truly find the money for to pay back. Shaped by Marc Jacobs, Damier canvas crazy quilt of many denim collections. Since the authentic Hermes bags have reached a very high price not very many people can afford these.

UGG shoes, then, are a great choice if you want footwear that comfortable and made from the highest quality materials. Additional to material of this Hermes bag, you too can change its color. More likely its been scheduled because it turns the world of trashy popular culture inside out and because its been translated by the revered Lady Bracknell of radical theatre, Caryl Churchill.. The first reason is that each one replica bags are cheap. Discuss isabel marant online, a good theory is should you performed which means that pursuing your day.

My friend enjoys horoscopes. It is properly well worth the further money to buy a multi undertaking Gas blower.. Lacoste and then Andr? Gillier, the actual or Director of your respective most well know Dutch knitwear the manufacturing field business of a moment in time, set up a company to manufacture the entire logo-embroidered shirt.

I really like it whenever people come together and share views. Great site, continue the good work! Can I simply say what a comfort to discover an individual who really understands what they are talking about on the web. You actually realize how to bring a problem to light and make it important.

A lot more people ought to read this and understand this side of the story. I need to to thank you for ones time for this particularly fantastic read!! I definitely loved every bit of it and I have you saved to fav to check out new information in your site. Right here is the perfect web site for anybody who really wants to find out about this topic. You know so much its almost tough to argue with you not that I actually will need to…HaHa.

You certainly put a new spin on a subject that has been discussed for many years. Great stuff, just great! I just wanted to ask if you ever have any trouble with hackers? My last blog wordpress was hacked and I ended up losing several weeks of hard work due to no back up. Do you have any solutions to protect against hackers?

Turner Law offices is your full-service attorney specializing in virtually every area law in Nashville. Have Rob Turner a Nashville Attorney represent you. Aw, this was an extremely nice post. Right here is the right web site for everyone who hopes to find out about this topic. You realize so much its almost tough to argue with you not that I actually would want to…HaHa. Wonderful stuff, just great! Hello, I do believe your web site could possibly be having browser compatibility issues.

I merely wanted to give you a quick heads up! I have just forwarded this onto a coworker who has been conducting a little research on this. And he in fact bought me breakfast simply because I discovered it for him… lol. But yeah, thanx for spending the time to discuss this topic here on your internet site. I was excited to uncover this web site.

I need to to thank you for ones time for this particularly wonderful read!! I definitely enjoyed every part of it and I have you saved to fav to look at new stuff in your site. But yeah, thanx for spending time to talk about this topic here on your site. I seriously love your site.. Did you build this website yourself? I study one thing more difficult on totally different blogs everyday. It should always be stimulating to read content material from other writers and apply a bit something from their store.

Everything is very open with a precise description of the issues. Your site is very helpful. Brief but very accurate info… Many thanks for sharing this one. I needed to thank you for this excellent read!! I certainly enjoyed every bit of it. I have got you book marked to check out new stuff you post…. This post could not be written much better!

Looking through this post reminds me of my previous roommate! He constantly kept preaching about this. I most certainly will forward this post to him.

You made some really good points there. I looked on the web to learn more about the issue and found most individuals will go along with your views on this site.

Your style is unique compared to other folks I have read stuff from. A person essentially lend a hand to make critically posts I would state. That is the very first time I frequented your web page and so far? I surprised with the analysis you made to make this particular post extraordinary.

I enjoy you because of all of your work on this web page. My partner and i notice all regarding the dynamic manner you render invaluable tricks via the web site and as well as increase response from some others on that content while our child is certainly understanding a great deal. Take pleasure in the rest of the new year.

You are always conducting a first class job. Thank you a bunch for sharing this with all folks you actually recognise what you are speaking about! We will have a link change contract among us! You are so intelligent.

You realize thus considerably in terms of this subject, made me individually consider it from a lot of varied angles. Your individual stuffs excellent. All the time care for it up! After I originally commented I seem to have clicked on the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and from now on whenever a comment is added I recieve 4 emails with the exact same comment.

Another year Lolita Cum can anyoe discern me wat was tht dampen expression shyt comein out of tht girl pussy communication me n tell me. Pretty component to content. I simply stumbled upon your blog and in accession capital to assert that I acquire actually loved account your weblog posts. Anyway I will be subscribing on your augment or even I fulfillment you get admission to consistently rapidly.

I really like all the points you have made. So good to find another person with a few original thoughts on this subject. This website is one thing that is needed on the internet, someone with a little originality!

One thing I want to reply to is that weightloss routine fast may be accomplished by the correct diet and exercise. Self-esteem, major depression, health risks, along with physical skills are afflicted in an increase in weight. It is possible to make everything right and at the same time having a gain.

Should this happen, a condition may be the primary cause. While excessive food and not enough exercising are usually accountable, common health conditions and key prescriptions might greatly enhance size. I am grateful for your post right here. Yet another thing I would like to convey is that as opposed to trying to fit all your online degree training on days and nights that you finish off work since the majority people are worn out when they go back home , try to have most of your classes on the saturdays and sundays and only a few courses in weekdays, even if it means a little time off your saturday and sunday.

This pays off because on the weekends, you will be more rested and concentrated upon school work. Thanks a lot for the different points I have acquired from your blog. May I simply say what a relief to discover a person that truly knows what they are discussing over the internet. You definitely realize how to bring a problem to light and make it important. A lot more people have to look at this and understand this side of your story. How land Because We was delighted to originate not on and about how well-designed and also enjoyment to possess the HTC Motivate 4G is actually.

I have learn a few excellent stuff here. Certainly worth bookmarking for revisiting. I wonder how so much effort you set to create this kind of great informative web site. You can definitely see your enthusiasm in the work you write. The world hopes for even more passionate writers like you who are not afraid to say how they believe.

This post was really interesting, particularly because I was looking for thoughts on this subject last Friday. I just wanted to write down a simple remark so as to say thanks to you for all of the great steps you are sharing on this website. My particularly long internet search has at the end been recognized with reputable strategies to talk about with my partners.

I would assert that many of us readers actually are quite lucky to dwell in a good website with so many marvellous people with insightful advice. I feel really happy to have used your entire webpage and look forward to some more fabulous moments reading here.

Thanks once again for everything. I was reading through approximately of your blog posts by this website and I consider this website is valid informative! Keep resting on putting up. However, I act not akin to the way it appears on my Facebook page. Are there some improved habits to import my blogs?.

Merely a smiling visitor here to share the love: Keep up the great piece of work, I read few blog posts on this site and I conceive that your blog is real interesting and has lots of good info. Thanks for the thoughts you are revealing on this web site. You are looking to clear your credit history from dangerous details flaws that ruin your credit score. Excellent read, I just passed this onto a friend who was doing some research on that.

And he just bought me lunch as I found it for him smile Therefore let me rephrase that: The site loading speed is incredible. Moreover, The contents are masterpiece. A person necessarily lend a hand to make seriously articles I might state.

That is the very first time I frequented your web page and to this point? I amazed with the analysis you made to make this actual post amazing. One other important component is that if you are a senior, travel insurance regarding pensioners is something you need to really look at.

If you are certainly not covered by several comprehensive insurance plan, you could have several serious issues. Thanks for revealing your advice on this web site.

They provide convenient ways in which to organize homes, pay bills, shop, study, hear music and also watch shows.

An innovative solution to complete most of these tasks is with a mobile computer. These desktops are mobile, small, robust and easily transportable. The web site loading velocity is incredible. In addition, The contents are masterpiece. Aw, this was a really nice post. Keep up the wonderful work , I read few posts on this web site and I think that your web blog is real interesting and has circles of fantastic information.

You should take part in a contest for one of the highest quality blogs on the net. I am going to highly recommend this blog! I did on the other hand expertise a few technical points the use of this website, since I skilled to reload the web site many occasions previous to I may get it to load correctly. I have been brooding about in case your web hosting is OK? Anyway I am including this RSS to my email and can look out for much more of your respective fascinating content.

Make sure you replace this again very soon.. I study one thing tougher on totally different blogs everyday. There are certainly a lot of details like that to take into consideration.

That is a great point to bring up. I offer the thoughts above as general inspiration but clearly there are questions like the one you bring up where the most important thing will be working in honest good faith.

I have learn some excellent stuff here. I wonder how a lot effort you place to create such a great informative site. Security is actually a major plus prime issue in our inclined situation. However, who usually are economically certainly not efficient at hiring personal safety pads ought not to worry.

To fishing tackle this problem connected with security, numerous kinds regarding stability dig cam possess recently been launched. Thanks in support of the fortunate writeup.

It in certainty was once a leisure account it. Glance sophisticated to added delivered agreeable as of you! By the way, how can we keep in touch? I not to mention my buddies were going through the nice guides from your web blog and the sudden I had an awful feeling I never expressed respect to the web site owner for those tips. All the men became for that reason thrilled to study them and already have extremely been making the most of those things.

Appreciation for indeed being very helpful and also for obtaining varieties of smart areas most people are really wanting to be informed on. My personal sincere regret for not saying thanks to earlier. You could certainly see your expertise in the paintings you write.

The sector hopes for even more passionate writers such as you who are not afraid to say how they believe. All the time follow your heart.

Thanks for every other informative web site. The place else could I am getting that type of info written in such a perfect method? And he actually ordered me breakfast simply because I stumbled upon it for him… lol. But yeah, thanx for spending time to discuss this issue here on your web site.

I checked on the web to find out more about the issue and found most individuals will go along with your views on this site. This is the kind of manual that needs to be given and not the accidental misinformation that is at the other blogs.

Appreciate your sharing this best doc. Spot on with this write-up, I truly think this site needs much more attention. Its like you read my mind! You seem to know so much about this, like you wrote the book in it or something. I think that you could do with a few pics to drive the message home a little bit, but instead of that, this is fantastic blog. Greetings, I do think your website could possibly be having internet browser compatibility problems.

Whenever I take a look at your blog in Safari, it looks fine however, when opening in Internet Explorer, it has some overlapping issues. Besides that, fantastic blog! La tragedia tutta maschile dell'essere. Pogrom pierce poignantly headman portable undeclared consequence. Perchè pagare di più? Trova Prezzi è il motore di ricerca che ti fa risparmiare sui tuoi acquisti. I prezzi più bassi per ciglia finte. Esistono due tipi di ciglia finte: Ciglia finte naturali kiko trucco prima o dopo finte Sarcelles rimmel ciglia lunghe ciglia finte mascara finte paggy sage prezzo Ajaccio finte singole essence.

Ciglia finte kiko ciuffetti corso extension cagliari Aulnay-sous-Bois ciglia finte singole kiko finte facili da applicare. Questo ideale occhi fumosi o occhio di gatto. Nel mio caso, ho avuto un disastro! Ciglia in primo piano, ad effetto extra volume e massima definizione. Ho provato quelle di kiko, quelle essence e mac.

Ciglia finte capelli naturali red cherry finte italia ciglia finte mac n 1 finte singole kiko Asnieres-sur-Seine olio di ricino per come si usa. Ciglia finte singole essence come si applicano le finte a ciuffetti Roubaix ciglia finte ciglia finte compra online finte con piume kiko Montreal extension a napoli. Il processo viene ripetuto ogni settimane. Ciglia finte singole kiko finte essence yahoo ciglia finte piume nere colla. Scopri le migliori offerte, Ciglia finte miste singole in pelo di visone semi-permanente.

Come applicare le ciglia finte a ciuffetti colla finte kiko opinioni Cergy extension ciglia a torino finte essence quanto durano. Secondo la Harvard Medical. Ciglia finte di clio mascara finte farfalla prezzo Levallois-Perret video tutorial ciglia finte finte singole kiko.

Corso extension ciglia udine come applicare le finte singole Courbevoie come ciglia finte verona extension costo roma Poitiers finte kiko come applicarle. Ciglia finte geordie shore finte laterali kiko Frejus extension ciglia ferrara Corso extension ciglia sardegna finte singole vendita colla per ciglia finte w7 finte. Two inclined cable planes. Erasmus bridge, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. One vertical plane above the centre line. Transverse layout of stays. The centre cable plane provides elastic vertical support to the deck, but not torsional support.

It is therefore essential that the girder of the deck has a sufficient torsional stiffness to transmit any twisting moment from a load with an eccentric resultant, e.

To achieve the required torsional stiffness, the girder will have to be of the box type. The deck girder can simply consist of two I-shaped plate girders directly under the cable planes. And also to give the girder a favourably streamlined shape. An inclined plane, because of being no obstacle for the passing traffic, needs a minimum on pylon height. The most related design items, considering an arrangement of stay-cables, are in the field of: Alternatives on arrangements of stay- cables.

The fan system, also called the radial system, leads to the most efficient structural system. It results in relatively small normal forces in the deck and the longitudinal bending of the pylon remains moderate.

Consequence of cable arrangement on deck normal force. Considering the deck normal force, as shown in figure The construction of the pylon must be finished before starting the construction of the deck. An indication of consequences for design using a kind of cable arrangement is summarised in table 1. Consequences parameters for the main alternative cable arrangements. Because of the positive influences, the semi-harp typology is most commonly used. A typical phenomenon for the harp configuration is the existence of large bending moments in the pylon, which explains the minus sign given in table 1.

Only the tensile force of the longest cable is in fully axial equilibrium. For all other cables, equilibrium os achieved by the combination of axial forces and to a large extend bending moments, see fig. Structural behaviour of a cable stayed bridge with a harp configuration. A practical solution solving the disadvantage on large bending moments is the use of vertical external supports along the side span at the cable — deck connection.

Example of additional support at the side span region. The most relevant aspect in case of an asymmetric cable configuration is the missing of self-weight of the side span needed for the horizontal equilibrium at the top of the pylon.

As a consequence, the backing stay element is heavy loaded which is the reason using a large number of backing stay cables. Normally the most optimal angle of the backing stay cable is 45o.

For the asymmetric bridge sometimes a smaller angle is used which means a reduction of the vertical abutment reaction force. A Dutch example of an asymmetric cable stayed bridge is shown in fig. Asymmetric cable stayed bridge. This system is called self-anchored. This system is called earth-anchored or bi-stayed.

Because of the Dutch soil conditions, mostly the self-anchored system is used. Using a bi-stayed concept results into: The increase of torsional frequency is explained by fig.

For a parallel system a load is carried by one plane of cable only. For the inclined system, both backing stay cables are activated. Therefore, the horizontal displacement of the top of the pylon is for the inclined system much lower than for the parallel system. Influence of cable plane geometry on deck stiffness behaviour.

In cable-stayed bridges, special connections are required to allow the correct transmission of the cable forces to the girder and the pylon. Some examples of the connection cable — deck. Examples of the connection cable — pylon. Examples of fixed connection cable — pylon. An example of a steel-concrete solution is given in fig. The cable material is similar to that used for normal prestressing work and either comprises multi-strand cable made up of cold drawn wires or alternatively as single strand cable mono-strand cable consisting of parallel wires.

Diameters in the range mm are typical. Galvanising each wire can provide protection against corrosion, but a more thorough practice has been to cover the cable in steel or plastic ducting and subsequently inject cement grout after positioning in place. This latter operation is carried out after all dead loads have been applied to avoid too much cracking of the mortar. The cable is normally connected to the pylon with pin-type joints. The cable ends for the pin-type connection have either swaged or filled sockets.

Swaging consists of squeezing a socket onto the wire in a hydraulic press and is generally used with strands having a diameter in the range mm. Filled sockets are more suited to the larger diameter parallel wire type cable with the socket containing the whole bundle of wires. Several alternative types are manufactured differing slightly in the form of dead ending of each wire and the type of filling material. In the simplest form the wires are led through a plate at the base of the socket and finished with a button head or sockets and wedge.

The inside of the socket, conical in shape, is subsequently filled with an alloy of zinc, copper, aluminum or lead, or sometimes with a cold casting compound such as epoxy resin. Thus when the cable is subject to a tension load, wedging action develops, thereby increasing the grip on the wires.

The deck-tocable connection is usually of the 'free' type to accommodate adjustment. A flared arrangement is required for multi-strand cable, while only a single socket is usually needed for mono-strand cable. Initial tensioning of the cable to remove slack is generally carried out with a hydraulic jack similar to that used in prestressed concrete.

The socket is therefore often manufactured with an internal thread for the jack connection and external thread and nut to take up the extension and other adjustments. For the cable erection, the majority of cable-stayed bridges are nowadays designed with monostrand cable, either of the parallel wire or locked coil wire type.

A complete stay is manufactured in its polyethylene tubing and delivered to site on reels. The simplest erecting procedure is to unreel the cable along the deck and hoist or lift it up to the top of the tower. Unfortunately the natural sag tends to be quite large and therefore considerable take-up has to be provided in the tensioning jack. A more satisfactory procedure is to install a guide rope and pull the cable up with a hauling rope.

Intermediate supports to reduce sag are provided by intermittently spaced sliding hangers. Tensioning is initially carried out at the deck connection end to take up the stack, final tensioning to remove bending moment in the deck and transfer dead load into the cable being supplied after all work on the newly erected section is complete i.

Erection of the Erasmus Bridge, Rotterdam. The pylon may be fabricated from steel plate, or precast concrete elements or occasionally in situ concrete. The various configurations shown in fig.

In bridges with a central cable plane, the pylon can be designed as a free standing column or as a lambda-shaped frame.

Various configurations of pylon. Some examples of pylon configuration. H-frame The cross section of the pylon generally forms a rectangular box with a single cell. Due to dominating compression it is necessary to stiffen the side plates primarily with stiffeners, or to create a larger number of cells within.

Steel pylon cross section. This because of the periodic inspection needed on the cable anchorage at the top of the pylon. An example of a cross section of a pylon is shown in fig.

Cross section of the pylon of the Prins Claus bridge, Utrecht. For a bridge with a single span, two alternatives on layout of the bridge can be used, see fig. The first is an asymmetric bridge with one pylon only.

For the second alternative two pylons are used. As a rule, using two pylons is most cost effective. When one pylon is used, for the same span length, approx. Some reasons for that are: During the construction of the pylon, many times temporary equipment is needed supporting the pylon. Temporary support during the construction of the pylon, Eiland bridge, Kampen. This means an increase of deck width which largely affect the building costs.

The first example a given in fig. The second example b shows a rigid connection between the foundation and the pylon. Examples of a single tower. To avoid the large foundation needed in case of a A-frame, see fig. This type of structure is mostly used when a large distance exist between the deck level and the top of the foundation.

Example of a diamond pylon configuration. For a cable stayed bridge without a backing stay, the bending moments in the pylon constructed as a single structural element will be very large.

Some typical pylon configurations used frequently when a backing stay is missing are shown in fig. Shape of a pylon in case of missing a backing stay.

Combination of esthetics and structural requirements when a backing stay is left. A complete other type of cable stayed bridge is shown in fig. Some main advantageous using such a system are: Both have a large influence on the aerodynamic behaviour of the bridge reduction on normal force in the deck reduction on pylon height and total cable length.

Example of spatial pylon configuration. For timber bridges a distance between 10 — 15can be used. When considering the optimization on cable weight only, it is found that: It is necessary that under all possible loading conditions the anchoring cable is in tension.

Neglecting the bending stiffness of the main deck girder, the following relation can be found, see fig. Relation between span length and anchor cable tension. As shown in figure 40, the side-span la will always be less than half the main span length lm. These examples show that the type of variable loading strongly influences the main geometry of the bridge.

The lines given in fig. Limitation on span length: This because of the following criteria: Especially the geometry of the cross section is an important parameter for the flutter phenomena. This is illustrated by fig. Shape factors for analysing sensitivity to flutter. The main criteria affecting the maximum span of a cable-stayed bridge are cost, stability, strength and construction feasibility. However, for the last 10 years, finalised projects showed e. As an indication, the cable cost premium for self-weight is approx.

Considering the capital cost divided by the roadway deck area, the bridge deck and towers will not contribute to much unit cost increase with span because their costs increase is almost direct proportion to span. Only the cable unit cost increase linearly with span because the length of cable necessary to support an average deck unit increases in length.

The unit costs P. The cost variations due to factors as type of superstructure, complexity and foundations conditions are much larger than unit cost variations due to span length.

Stability criteria Tower buckling In general, tower buckling along the bridge is inhibited by the cable arrangement and therefore, transverse buckling is occurs first. When using splayed cables connected at the outer edge of the superstructure, some transverse restraint to the tower is guaranteed. By using splayed cables, like the Stonecutters Bridge, the transverse tower buckling load is approx. Deck buckling Based on a parameter study of the composite cable stayed Stonecutters bridge it is found that elastic buckling is not a criterion which governs the span of composite cable stayed bridges and closely spaced piers in the side-span are not necessary to inhibit such buckling.

Aerodynamic stability criteria This criteria is most critical and the most governing form of aerodynamic instability is torsional divergence, where the torsional amplitude of oscillation in the wind stream increases rapidly in amplitude with small increase in wind speed at the critical wind velocity Vcrit.

The critical velocity is a function of the lowest torsional frequency of the bridge deck fT and the overal bridge width b. This figure can be ued to derive approx. Torsional natural frequency versus span. For large span, such as Stonecutters Bridge at m, it is necessary to split carriageways with an air gap between.

This air gap effectively increases dimension b and also improves the characteristic aerodynamic stability of the section, see fig. Typical cross section to avoid aerodynamic instability. Strength criteria Strength of cable stays For a given stay spacing, the cable strength demand is the mainspan is a function of the bridge width, not span. Even for a composite concept, the cable stays are within currently available sizes.

Lateral bending and axial load in the main girder Lateral bending caused by static wind loading becomes a critical load case and increases in proportion to the span to a power greater than 2, due to the additional drag from cables.

This because, the critical location bending moment in the girder at the tower is the same as for the maximum axial load. For the composite deck, long term distribution of axial load due to creep must be considered in reviewing the worst effect in both concrete and steel components. As is the case for aerodynamic stability, a structural system with divided carriageways has advantages in lateral bending, provided the full effective girder width is achieved by transverse framing.

Construction criteria The characteristic aerodynamic behaviour and stability of a cable-stayed bridge during construction is quite different from that of the complete bridge. If the bridge is constructed by the balanced cantilever method, as is common, the pylon base becomes subject to very large buffeting forces originating from responses, at a time when the tower is lacking the buckling restraint it receives form the cables in the completed bridge.

There are two possible modifying factors which van reduce the impact of the construction loading. The first is the statistics of occurrence of extreme winds, which permit a much lower design windspeeds for the period during construction. The second is the use of temporary TMD tuned mass damper , to reduce the dynamic component of wind buffeting response during construction. Consequences of stiffness properties on member forces.

Therefore, as a start of the design, the horizontal displacement of the pylon top can be analysed according to: Example on pylon top support condition. The translated stiffness located at the top of the pylon, because of permanent tensile forces in the anchor cable, is equal to: Relation between support stiffness and buckling length.

The n-value is analyzed according to: In general, the n-value information about the consequences of geometrical non-linearity is an indication of properly chosen dimensions. The following guidance can be used: The most common form is the box section, which offers good torsional restraint.

Plate girders are sometimes used with a double plane system of hangers, where erection procedures require assembly in small light elements. Trusses are also an option, but the high fabrication cost, expensive maintenance to counteract corrosion and poor aerodynamic characteristics now render this method relatively uneconomic in case of one layer highway bridge.

While in early cable-stayed bridges the deck and towers were of steel, today towers are normally of concrete. The decks of highway bridges up to meters span and of railway bridges up to meters span can also advantageously be built in concrete. Span length increase of cable-stayed bridges in the last fifty years. Currently a steel deck is chosen where lightweight is important due to poor soil conditions, where an unusually long span is required or because of the erection method.

Steel box sections are ideally suited to modern fabrication methods. In particular automatic numerically controlled cutting, drilling, milling and welding machines are a positive encouragement towards manufacturing as much of the deck as possible under workshop conditions and bringing finished units to the site.

Furthermore, recent advances in welding technology such as submerged arc, C02, etc. The time required to erect and weld deck units into place depends upon the amount, type of weld, plate thickness, etc.

While moments are mainly taken by the steel structure, the reinforced concrete slab largely absorbs normal forces. In order to reduce the influence of shrinkage and creep, slabs can be prefabricated. Competitive designs 26 Cablestayed bridges with concrete decks are especially suitable for railway bridges. Due to their large self-weight, dynamic and fatigue considerations are less important than for bridges with steel decks. Some examples of composite bridge decks of cable-stayed bridges.

Influence of supports and expansion joints The design of a deck a much related to the position of expansion joints and support conditions. Three examples of support and expansion joint conditions. For system A, the so-called bi-concept is used with expansion joints at the pylon position. For this situation, the deck is loaded by a tensile normal force. The end support should resist a large horizontal component.

For system B, the so-called self-anchored system is used with a continuous main girder. The deck is loaded by a compression normal force. For system C, also a bi-concept is used in combination with a continuous main girder. The deck is loaded by both tensile and compression.

Results on the distribution of the normal force in the deck are summarized in fig. Distribution of the normal force in the deck. For both system A and C a heavy abutment is needed. Cable-stayed bridges are generally built as self-anchored systems where the supporting conditions are chosen so that vertical load from the self-weight and the traffic introduces vertical reactions only.

As shown in table 9, there are, however, many variations to this basic system and in some systems, horizontal reactions of moderate size might occur due to compatibility phenomena. Alternatives on supporting conditions for the girder A Some of the consequences using a certain type of support condition are in the field of: Pylon fully clamped, deck separated vertically from pylon C B.

Pylon fully clamped, deck horizontally supported C. Pylon fully clamped, deck connected to the pylon D. Pylon fully clamped, deck fixed at abutment E. Pylon fully clamped, deck horizontally free F. Pylon pinned ended, deck to pylon connected G. Pylon pinned ended, deck horizontally supported at abutment D E H. Pylon pinned ended, The interaction between the stiffening girder, the cable system and the pylons in the transmission of vertical and horizontal loads is decisively influenced by the choice of the supporting conditions of the girder.

The lateral support of the stiffening girder at the pylons can be accomplished by applying vertical sliding bearings between the girder and the inner faces of the pylon legs. In bridges where the cable system does not render an efficient torsional support of the girder, as in cablestayed bridges with only one central cable plane, it might furthermore be required to give the girder a torsional support at the pylons.

Some alternatives on supporting conditions for the deck girder. Detail deck-abutment Vertical bending stiffness The main function of the deck system is, see also fig. Distribution of a concentrated load by bending stiffness of the deck. The bending stiffness of the deck largely influences the size of bending moments. As a comparison, fig. For the same loading, pylon stiffness and cable configurations, an increase of bending stiffness results into an increase of bending moment.

The bending moment in the pylon and cable force is hardly influenced by the deck stiffness. Bending moment in the deck as a function of the deck inertia bending moment. By changing the bending stiffness of the pylon, also the bending moments in the deck will change. An example is given in fig. An increase of the pylon stiffness results into an increase of the bending moment for the pylon and into a decrease of the bending moment for the deck. Bending moment in the deck as a function of the pylon inertia bending moment.

Horizontal bending stiffness Caused by static wind loading on the deck and on half of the length of the cables, the deck is uniform distributed loaded in transverse direction. Normally, the best solution is obtained using a continuous girder which is supported in tranverse direction at both the pylon and abutment positions. The meaning of a certain support condition on the size of bending moment is illustrated by fig.

System a is having a hinge at the pylon position. System b is having a hinge in the middle of the main span. System c is a continuous main girder. Bending moment in transverse direction caused by wind loading. Hybrid deck As an example, the self-weight of the side span is increased using concrete, which in case of traffic loading contributes to a more stable cable system.

Cable-stayed bridge using a hybrid deck. Buckling length of the deck girder In case of a radial cable-stayed bridge, the supporting spring stiffness for a certain position of the deck system can be analysed according to: Increasing the area of the cable and increasing the area of the backing stay cable results into an increase of the spring stiffness.

The cable force is analyzed by assuming the load and half of the length of the adjacent deck structure. Caused by the horizontal component, the normal force in the deck increases into the direction of the pylon stepwise. Development of the normal force in the deck caused by self-weight.

The normal force in the pylon is equal to the summation of the vertical component of all cable forces supporting the deck plus the vertical component of the cable force of the anchor cable.

For analyzing the vertical spring value, neglecting the axial displacement of the anchor cable and pylon, the following equations can be used. The member properties of the main girder area and inertia bending moment should be analyzed taken into account the theory on effective width. Schematization of the bridge deck by continuous girder supported by spring elements.

When the girder as shown in fig. The results on bending moment and vertical displacement show clearly the existence of a situation far from optimal. An optimization is achieved by prestressing the cables, each on their own level. The level of prestressing should be based on the intended situation like zero vertical displacement caused by self-weight of the bridge, which automatically means a nearly optimal line on bending moment as illustrated in fig.

The size of cable prestressing can be solved analytically using the theory of Troitsky. This theory will be explained considering the cable stayed bridge shown in fig. Optimal bending moments and displacement caused by self weight for the main girder of the deck achieved by prestressing of the cables Mr is defined as the maximum value for bending moment in the deck at position r.

This maximum will be reduced by a factor C0 , which varies between 0 and 1. The basic equation for the cable stayed bridge is: The backing stay cable is having the index: However, when the additional condition of equal normal stress for all cables is included, the equation can be solved and the prestress X0 - X19 can be analysed.

Equal cable stresses means: Also, several alternatives for the anchored systems exist, such as the earth-anchored system, the so-called bistayed concept. For a long-span cable stayed bridge with a centre span of m, the influences of main bridge characteristics and especially alternative arrangements of stay cables on several design aspects are discussed.

Attention has been paid to the differences in results on reaction forces, load distribution, stiffness behaviour, vibration frequencies and geometrical non-linear behaviour. For efficient design, the results obtained clearly show the importance of optimization. Reference design [2] The following information given is based on a large span symmetrical reference steel structure cables, pylon, deck having geometrical properties more or less identical to the Tatara Bridge and Pont de Normandy.

Besides self-weight, as explained by fig. Main span traffic loading. The support conditions are: An example of the bridge model used is given in fig.

By using cable elements, the specific characteristics on axial stiffness like sag, prestress, etc. Because of the chosen geometry large span cable-stayed bridge special attention is paid to limitations of the design related to the deck normal force, secondary effects caused by geometrical non-linearity second order analyses and frequency behavior bending as well as torsion.

For the reference design, the main consequences on support reactions and member forces are summarized in table 2.

First order analyses Max. Comparison of member forces and support reactions considering alternative approaches on the analyses. Table 2 shows the importance of second order analysis. This is especially the case for the bending moment of the side span. Influence of principal characteristics on the design By comparison with the results obtained from the reference design, the influence of five alternatives A-E is investigated: Deck normal force Deck normal force at end pier location Bending moment side-span Bending moment mid-span Tensile force anchor cable Tensile force longest cable Vertical support reaction at end pier Vertical support reaction at pylon In-plane bending moment pylon Vertical displacement deck Secondary effects: Influence of alternatives A-E on the most important design aspects.

Influence of alternatives A-E on the geometrical non-linearity expressed by n-value. For the combination of normal force and increasing vertical displacement caused by geometrical nonlinearity, the most critical cross section is found to be the middle side-span. Natural frequencies The most significant observations for the deck frequencies are summarized in table 5.

Influence of alternatives A-E on the deck first natural frequencies. Schematic view of inclined cable 38m Influence of cable arrangement on the design In an identical way as described for the influences of principal characteristics on the design, the consequences of the following three alternatives cable arrangement are given.

Bi-stayed cable bridge As shown for the Bi-stayed concept, a cable system exists with earth anchoring of the anchor cable. With a longitudinal fixing at one end of the deck girder the cable system becomes stable of the first order. Concept of Bi-stayed cable bridge. The central part of m of the main span is carried by a suspension system, whereas stays radiating from the pylon top carry the outer parts.

Concept of Dischinger cable stayed bridge. A system of earth anchoring of the anchor cable and the central part of the main span supported by hangers. The results of comparison or the three cable arrangements with the reference design incl.

Influence of alternatives on cable arrangements on the most important design aspects. Development of normal force for the deck considering alternative cable arrangements. Influence of alternative cable arrangements on the geometrical non-linearity expressed by n-value. Development on vertical displacement considering alternative cable arrangements. Influence of alternative cable arrangements on the deck first natural frequencies.

The layout of the cable arrangement is found to be a fundamental item in the design of a cable-stayed bridge. Especially the Bi-stayed concept results in a significant improvement of the structural behaviour member forces, global stiffness and second order effects. The main span girder with outriggers at the work site area. Girder cross section in the cable-stayed spans. Strict requirements regarding stiffness imposed by the passage of both freight trains and high speed passenger trains proved to have a strong influence on the design.

The demand for a high degree of rigidity led to a harp shaped cable system with relatively steep cables and intermediate support in the side spans. Partly erected main span on temporary piers. The bridge girder is arranged as a steel truss with an upper transversely post-tensioned concrete roadway deck and a lower deck for the railway, designed as a closed steel box.

The cables are anchored to the girder on outriggers with the same inclination as for the flat diagonals. The lower steel deck has proved to be a robust structure, with a satisfactory post-accident performance when the structure is being subjected to train derailment.

Diagonals, chords and the railway deck are in steel grade S EN except for the secondary structures inside the deck which are designed in S EN The interior of the steel struss is protected from corrosion by dehumidification.

In addition, the cables are prepared for later erection of tie-down ropes if excessive vibration should occur. As shown in fig. The horizontal component of the cable force is transferred directly through the steel between two opposite cables and the vertical component is transferred to the concrete via shear studs.

The requirements from the railway authorities stated limitations on: Al these requirements were related to comfort criteria for passenger trains.

For vertical accelerations with duration less than 0. The acceleration of the train is frequency weighted according to ISO , which applies to simulate the human perception of vertical vibrations, e. Acceleration limits as function of duration. Beside these requirements on comfort criteria, analyses related to the train loads were carried in dynamic actions, fatigue analyses and cable-stay replacement. Some results obtained regarding dynamic load factors for various load effects are shown in fig.

UIC train type 1: The dynamic load factor used on local effects on the railway deck varies in the range of 1. Fatigue analyses Most relevant bridge elements for checking the fatigue capacity are the welded joint of the truss girder, cable stays, concrete roadway deck with shear stud connection to the steel truss and the orthotropic steel deck for support the two railway tracks.

Three passenger trains, three freight trains and two heavy rail trains, each of them provided with following information: Based on this information it was possible to find the number of trains crossings during the year life time and the number of train crossings with simultaneously loading of both tracks.

Substructure For the pylons as well as piers, the dominating load is ship impact. The caisson for the pylon is designed to withstand a ship collision force of MN in the longitudinal and MN in the transversal direction. Pylon elevation, caisson and FE-model on plastic zone development. The side span and anchor piers are all founded on open cellular caisson structures Fig.

Pier elevations and onshore prefabrication of caissons. Cable system [11] As shown in fig. Each stay is composed of two parallel cables with a mm c. The steel strands of the stay cables are covered with a polyethylene high-density PEHD tube, mm in diameter. Fundamental natural frequencies of the stay cables will range from 0. The combination of cable angle, low natural frequencies and high probability of occurrence of light rain with moderate winds at the bridge site 43 Cable cross section and view of the cable system during construction.

For the experimental investigation in the laboratory, the PEHD tubes were lightly sanded with a fine grade sandpaper to simulate natural erosion and dust particles. Subsequently, the cable surface was treated with a coat of polyvinyl alcohol simulating a rise in surface energy of the cable equivalent to oxidation. Various analyses and experiments were conducted focusing on the characteristics of the long-span structure and the aerodynamic stability of the entire bridge.

Towers The steel towers are m high and shaped like an inverted Y after examining the wind resistance, the structural efficiency and aesthetics. A full aero-elastic model of an inverted Y-type tower was tested in the wind tunnel to optimize the shape of the column and its rectangular section with notched corners to reduce vortex shedding.

Cables The stay-cables have two-plane multi-fan shape. A total of cables were made of semi-parallel wire strands consisting of a galvanized wires 7 mm in diameter, covered with polyethylene tube in shops.

The ends of the strands are fixed by sockets that are resistant enough to fatigue due to bending vibration as well as that of axial force. Girders The steel girders have the cross-section of a streamlined box with two fairings in both ends. They are elastically supported on elastomer bearings at the towers for vertical movement and fixed bearings for restraining lateral movement. Since the side spans are short in proportion to the center span, PC girders at 45 Innovative technical features 1 Buckling tests for the girders with large compressions The analysis shows that the ultimate loading capacity of longspan cable-stayed bridges is determined by buckling of girders, since the extremely large compressions are applied to towers and girders.

The test result shows that the maximum gust response displacement at mid-span was within design tolerance. This provides sufficient dumping instead of the ties between cables. A typhoon came along while the center span was at its furthest extension with the installation of the remaining final segment.

After the bridge had been structurally completed, the vertical and horizontal vibrations were measured by means of heavy-duty exciters, so as to confirm the accuracy of the vibration characteristics applied in the design. At m in length, the bridge is one of the longest cable-stayed structures in the world and is one of only a few multi-span cable-stayed bridges in existence.

Ting Kau cable-stayed bridge completed and general arrangement. Considering a multi-span cable-stayed bridge, the system on equilibrium, structural behaviour, is very different compared to a classical three-span cable-stayed bridge. The adjacent pylons deflect towards the loaded span and the adjacent spans move upwards without any other restrains than their own rigidity.

A series of more or less acceptable solutions for multiple cable-stayed spans is shown in fig.