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Copper sulfate might pass EPA regulations more easily than penicillin because it is not used to treat humans. But plants would need to receive injections for the rest of their lives at a potentially prohibitive cost. The best long-term prospects may lie with genetic modification. Researchers at Cornell University are developing citrus trees that would repel Asian citrus psyllids, and the two technologies may eventually be combined.

But genetically modified produce faces a long and expensive path to regulatory approval and public acceptance. Many worry it will not arrive in time to save the industry. In the Europe of the early seventeenth century — a Europe no longer subject to the Church's hegemony — heresies, mysticism and mystically oriented philosophies were proliferating. There were a number of ultimately futile attempts to institutionalise the mystical experience and establish it as a new, all-encompassing world religion — with, inevitably and paradoxically, its own accompanying dogma diluting and distorting it.

And there were attempts as well to adapt mysticism to politics, and establish an ideal Utopian state resting on mystical foundations. Such, for example, was the vogue of so-called Rosicrucian thought that began to appear around and was hailed by its exponents as a harbinger of a new Golden Age.

The Church unquestionably felt threatened by Rosicrucianism, and the Holy Office duly added suspected Rosicrucians to its list of deviants. Like witches, Rosicrucians were to be hunted down, ferreted out and vigorously prosecuted. But the chief culprit in Rome's eyes remained Protestantism, with which Rosicrucianism was more or less tenuously associated. It was, after all, Protestantism that had created the circumstances and the spiritual climate in which Rosicrucianism, along with other forms of heterodox thought, could thrive.

And thus Protestantism remained the primary target of the Counter-Reformation. If the Jesuits and the rechristened Holy Office represented the Counter-Reformation in the sphere of thought, teaching and doctrine, the corresponding social, political and military offensive was conducted — at least initially and ostensibly — by the Catholic armies of Habsburg Spain and the Habsburg Holy Roman Empire.

This offensive occurred in the form of the Thirty Years War —48 — a conflict akin to a world war in the modern sense, and the most appalling, costly and catastrophic conflict to be fought on European soil prior to the twentieth century. In this war, the Church was not only ultimately thwarted, but, in its own eyes, scandalously betrayed. By the time hostilities ended, Rome's authority was even more fragmented and precarious than it had been before. Having been engaged in her own civil war, England, under Cromwell's Protectorate, was even more securely Protestant than ever.

The Protestantism of Scandinavia and the North German states was equally unassailable; and Protestant Holland had emerged as a major world power, at least at sea and abroad. The Protestant naval powers of England and Holland now fought each other for control of the oceans, and of the colonies, formerly dominated exclusively by Catholic Spain and Portugal.

Worst of all for the Church, France had supplanted Spain as the supreme military power on the continent; and she had done so by aligning herself with the avowed enemy.

And Richelieu, a Catholic cardinal implementing policy for a predominantly Catholic country, proceeded to deploy Catholic troops on behalf of the Protestant cause. Although other countries, especially Sweden, had repeatedly thwarted the Church's military power, it was ultimately the army of Catholic France that shattered the martial supremacy of Catholic Spain. The Thirty Years War had commenced as a predominantly religious conflict, with Catholic armies endeavouring to extirpate Protestantism in Bohemia and Germany.

By the time the war ended, it had turned into a conflict of vested interests fought for the sake of the balance of power; and religion had become both incidental and subordinate to secular concerns. The regime jealously guarded its independence of Papal control. It even possessed the right to appoint its own bishops. Such was the situation in the aftermath of the Thirty Years War and during the latter half of the seventeenth century. By , the Church's authority on the continent had become even more eroded, its position even more precarious.

In , James II of England had converted to Catholicism, and the Papacy was able for a brief moment to envisage itself reinstated as the official religious power of the British Isles. There ensued the Siege of Londonderry and, in and respectively, the two decisive battles of the Boyne and Aughrim. As a result, James was deposed and Parliament enacted legislation that prevented a Catholic from ever sitting on the British throne. The now Catholic Stuarts fled into exile, whence they repeatedly attempted to foment rebellions in Scotland, culminating with the campaign of Charles Edward Stuart, Bonnie Prince Charlie, in — 6.

Nothing was to come of any of these endeavours. Even if the campaign had succeeded, it is questionable whether Bonnie Prince Charlie's Presbyterian supporters would have accepted a Catholic monarch; and had he been forced to choose between the Church and the British throne, the prince would almost certainly have chosen the latter. On the continent, Spain, formerly the supreme military and naval executor of the Church, had been reduced to lame-duck status; and by , Europe's other great powers, indifferent altogether to Rome, were fighting over whether the increasingly decrepit Spanish Empire was to be ruled by a Bourbon or a Habsburg.

Austria remained nominally Catholic and managed to repel a major Islamic thrust westwards. By the mid eighteenth century, however, her influence in central Europe was being challenged and neutralised by the advent of a new and dangerous Protestant power to the north, the fledgling Kingdom of Prussia, created in During the wars of the period, Russia, too, made her début on the chessboard of European politics, bringing a further threat to Rome in the form of the Orthodox Church.

Of the Catholic powers that had formerly been the Church's executive in secular spheres, only France remained. However, France fiercely maintained her independence from Rome.

And though still nominally Catholic, she now began to pose the greatest threat of all — a threat in the world of ideas and values, and thus more difficult to oppose than any military or political edifice.

Under the influence of Cartesian rationalism, France, by the mid eighteenth century, had assumed the vanguard of anti-clerical sentiment and become a veritable hotbed of hostility — towards organised religion in general and towards Catholicism in particular.

To the mortification of the ecclesiastical hierarchy, Rome became a species of running joke, the object of merciless derision.

In consigning the authors of this derision to the Index, the Holy Office only contrived to look more puerile, more humiliatingly impotent.

If Cartesian rationalism and the writings of les philosophes represented major challenges to the Church, a challenge of comparable magnitude was presented by the dissemination of Freemasonry. The institution now known as Freemasonry had coalesced, at least in something like its modern form, in Scotland and England during the early seventeenth century.

By the end of Cromwell's Protectorate and the restoration of the Stuarts to the British throne in , Freemasonry seems to have been widespread throughout the British Isles, and increasingly supportive of the ruling dynasty.

But when the Stuarts were driven into exile, they took Freemasonry with them; and in the years that followed, it proceeded to proliferate rapidly across the continent. According to the documentation now available, the first Lodge outside the British Isles was founded in Paris in by Charles Radclyffe, later Earl of Derwentwater, an illegitimate grandson of Charles II. Before his death, however, he founded additional Lodges in France, and Freemasonry acquired an irresistible momentum of its own.

In , having been initiated as a Mason five years earlier, François, Duke ofLorraine, married Maria Theresa von Habsburg, thus becoming joint ruler of the Austrian Empire.

He founded a Lodge in Vienna and extended his protection over Freemasonry throughout the Habsburg domains. The first Lodge was founded in Italy in , in Holland in , in Sweden in , in Switzerland in The first German Lodge was established at Hamburg in A year later, the future Frederick the Great of Prussia was initiated and subsequently founded his own Lodge at his castle of Rheinsberg. In , a Lodge was founded in Berlin.

By that time, the number of Lodges in Holland and Sweden had become sufficiently great to warrant the creation of a national Grand Lodge. By , there were ten Lodges in Geneva alone. In the very teeth of the Inquisition, Lodges were also established in Spain and Portugal.

By the mid eighteenth century, Freemasonry had reached every corner of western Europe. It had already spread across the Atlantic to the Americas. It was soon to extend eastwards into Russia, as well as to European colonies in Asia, the Indian subcontinent and the Pacific. They included prominent literary figures such as Montesquieu, Diderot, Voltaire and, by the end of the eighteenth century, Goethe and Schiller.

The threat posed to the Church by Freemasonry was manifold. In the first place, many if not most Lodges of the time subscribed in at least some measure to Cartesian rationalism, and thus served as a conduit for modes of thought inimical to Catholicism.

Freemasonry never pretended to be a rival or alternative religion; but it raised spiritual questions and thereby presented challenges to the dogmatic, docile and obsequious faith demanded by Rome. While Rome clung stubbornly to dogma that had not changed for centuries, Freemasonry embraced the rapidly changing world of the eighteenth century, with its commerce, industry and scientific progress.

That world also included significant social reform, with an unprecedented emphasis on egalitarianism and the rights of man. While the Church looked backwards, Freemasonry looked forwards; and when Rome contemplated the future, that future seemed more likely to be influenced by the Lodge than by the pulpit.

There were other grounds for concern. Until the Reformation, the Church, if only in theory, had represented the supreme arbiter of western Christendom. In effect, it served, or was supposed to serve, as an international forum — the equivalent for the time of the League of Nations, or the United Nations. If only in theory, secular disputes between rival potentates, for example, were subject to arbitration and judgement by the Church.

The Church was authorised and mandated to act as negotiator, as peace-broker and facilitator of reconciliation. This role had been dramatically restricted by the Reformation. Protestant churches were hardly prepared to accept Catholic authority in either spiritual or temporal matters.

But Catholicism still retained enough currency on the continent — in France, in Austria and southern Germany, in Italy, in Spain and Portugal — to offer at least some common ground on which rapprochement might be established. It was precisely in this area that Freemasonry threatened to encroach on the Church's traditional functions, possibly even to usurp them.

Unlike the Church, the network of Lodges transcended denomination, enabling Catholics and Protestants to talk to each other without the fetters of doctrine and dogma.

The proliferating web of Lodges afforded both a conduit for the transmission of messages and a forum for high-level inter-governmental and international contacts, for off-the-record discussion of treaties, for delicate diplomatic negotiations. Thus, for example, Protestant Prussia, under Frederick the Great, and Catholic Austria, under Maria Theresa and François ofLorraine, might be at war — as indeed they were on two separate occasions between and But both Frederick and François were Freemasons, as were many of their ministers and military commanders.

Through the Lodges, peace feelers might be extended and common ground established in a way that was no longer possible through the Church. Through the Lodges, new alliances might be formed, new alignments and configurations to maintain the balance of power in equilibrium.

It goes without saying, of course, that the potentialities offered by the Lodges were not always actualised, and as often as not, remained purely theoretical.

But the Church's capacity for arbitration had seldom been more than theoretical either; and the Lodges were at least as successful as the Church at turning theory into practice. Even if war could not be averted, it could be made to conform, insofar as possible, to scrupulously observed rules and certain premises of the Enlightenment promulgated by the Lodges. In part, this reflected a revulsion from the excesses of such conflicts as the Thirty Years War, but it also stemmed from an absence of religious hatred and fanaticism, and a recognition of certain increasingly respected codes.

These codes owed more than a little to the ideas, attitudes and values disseminated by the Lodges. Attacks upon Freemasonry Alarmed by the vigorous spread of Freemasonry and by the threats the institution posed, the Church proceeded to act.

The conference was attended by three cardinals, the heads of the primary Papal Congregations and the Inquisitor General. Their sole topic of discussion was Freemasonry. According to these reports, the assembled ecclesiastics were convinced that Freemasonry was but a façade for some much vaster, all-encompassing, clandestine heresy of an altogether new kind.

It is difficult to imagine what the clerics believed such a heresy might entail to generate such extreme anxiety. In any case, the Berlin journal reported, Freemasons were already being arrested. Later in the year, anti-Masonic riots instigated by unseen hands erupted in a number of towns. It was growing increasingly clear that powerful interests behind the scenes were beginning to mobilise against Freemasonry.

Nine months after the conference in Florence, on 28 April , Pope Clement issued the first of what was to become an increasingly belligerent sequence of Bulls on the subject. The Bull, In eminenti, began: Being reluctant to antagonise the Church, a number of European regimes acted at once.

As early as the previous summer, the police in France had begun to arrest Lodge members and confiscate their literature — from which much of our knowledge of French Freemasonry at the time derives. In Poland, Freemasonry was banned throughout the kingdom. In Sweden, participation in Masonic rituals was declared punishable by death.

Encouraged by this response, the Church hardened its position. All Freemasons everywhere were threatened with the confiscation of their possessions, excommunication and death. Shortly thereafter, a number of Freemasons in Florence were arrested, imprisoned and tortured. Others were released through the intervention of François of Lorraine, whose titles included that of Grand Duke of Tuscany. Despite such measures, however, and to the profound consternation of the Holy Office, Catholics continued to join Lodges in substantial numbers.

More worrisome still, the Lodges were beginning to attract not only lay Catholics, but priests as well, and even several high-level clergy. A Lodge in Mainz, for example, was composed almost entirely of clergy. Another, in Münster, included the presiding bishop's own officials. At Erfurt, the future bishop founded a Lodge himself, which convened in the rooms of the abbot at a prominent monastery.

A Lodge in Vienna included two royal chaplains, the rector of the theological college and two other priests. Another Viennese Lodge counted no fewer than thirteen priests among its membership. By the end of the eighteenth century, the list of high-ranking Catholic Freemasons was augmented by numerous abbots and bishops, one imperial chaplain, one cardinal and at least five archbishops.

And the Church, increasingly bereft of secular armies to impose its authority, was significantly more impotent than it had been at the time of the Reformation. Where the Holy Office's writ still ran enforceably, however, Freemasons were fair game, and pursued as assiduously as witches had been in the past.

This was particularly so in Spain and Portugal, where a national Inquisition, accountable to the Crown, still operated. Shortly after the first Papal pronouncement against Freemasonry in , the Spanish Inquisition raided a Lodge in Madrid and arrested its members, eight of whom were sentenced to the galleys. In , the Inquisition completed a four-year investigation into Freemasonry. In that same year, one Inquisitor, Father Joseph Torrubia, joined a Lodge himself in order to spy, to collect information and denounce members.

According to his reports, there were ninety-seven Lodges in Spain at the time. In the end, they would emerge triumphant. After the Napoleonic Wars and the restoration of the Spanish monarchy, it was the Inquisition that was dismantled. A similar story obtained for Portugal. In certain of his works, the novelist José Saramago, winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature in , depicts the omnipresence of the Portuguese Inquisition well into the eighteenth century.

Like its counterpart in Spain, it needed a scapegoat to justify its continued existence, and Freemasonry was an obvious candidate for the role. One particularly notorious case was that of John Coustos, a Swiss-born diamond cutter resident in England since childhood, naturalised and duly initiated as a Freemason.

In , Coustos had established a Lodge of his own in Paris. In , impelled by the discovery of diamonds in Brazil, he moved to Lisbon and founded a Lodge there. It included no Portuguese members, only other foreign diamond cutters, traders, merchants, goldsmiths and a ship's captain.

It was nevertheless denounced to the Portuguese Inquisition, which, in March of , proceeded to act. The first member of the Lodge to be arrested was a French jeweller. On a pretext of business, agents of the Inquisition visited him at noon, just as he was closing his shop for siesta. He was summarily arrested, searched for weapons and forbidden to speak. He was then hustled out into a small closed carriage, driven off and imprisoned in the dungeon of the Inquisition's palace without being allowed to contact anyone.

To account for his disappearance, the Inquisition disseminated a rumour that he had absconded with a quantity of diamonds. Four days later, on 5 March , Coustos himself was arrested. At ten in the evening, he emerged from a coffee house where he had been chatting with two friends. Outside, nine officers of the Inquisition were waiting with the customary small closed carriage. His sword being taken from him, he was handcuffed and driven rapidly to the Inquisition's palace, where he, too, was consigned to the dungeon.

Here he was left in solitude for two days, receiving no visitors, hearing only moans and cries from the surrounding cells and corridors. At last, there began a prolonged sequence of torture and interrogation. The Inquisition, it transpired, desired to know everything possible about Freemasonry and the extent of the Lodges' activity in Portugal. Not being a masochist or a particularly heroic individual, Coustos endeavoured to satisfy his persecutors. In the course of several sessions of interrogation, he volunteered a good many details on the rituals and practice of Freemasonry and named twelve other members of his Lodge, all foreign nationals, most of them French.

Despite having taken down pages of information and confession, however, the Inquisitors were not convinced they had learned everything Coustos had to tell. What was more, they insisted that he convert to Catholicism. This he refused to do, even when English and Irish monks resident in Lisbon at the time were brought in to exhort him.

The Inquisition's files on Coustos's case still exist and run to some pages. They include the text of an exhaustively detailed confession. He was conducted to a square tower-like room with no windows and no illumination save that of two candles.

The doors were padded to muffle all sound. The victim was seized by six assistants, who stripped him of most of his clothes and fastened him to the rack with an iron collar around his neck and an iron ring on each foot, two ropes around each arm and two around each thigh.

Four men then proceeded to stretch his limbs by drawing the ropes tight — so tight that the ropes cut through his flesh and caused him to bleed from all eight lacerations. When he fainted, he was returned to his cell to recover. The Inquisition's documents describe the punctiliousness with which the legal niceties were observed. Thus the Doctor and Surgeon and the other Ministers of the torture approached the Bench where they were given the oath of the Holy Gospels, on which they placed their hands, and promised faithfully and truly to carry out their duties, and the torture prescribed for the accused was then ordered to be executed, and stripped of those clothes which might impede the proper execution of the torture, he was placed on the rack and the binding commenced and he was then informed by me, the notary, that if he died during the operation, or if a limb was broken, or if he lost any of his senses, the fault would be his, and not of the Lords Inquisitors.

The process was repeated three times, after which he was returned to his cell. A thick chain was wound around his stomach and attached at each arm to a rope, which was progressively tightened by means of a windlass. His stomach was severely bruised, his shoulders were dislocated again and his wrists as well. When a surgeon had reset his bones, the whole procedure was repeated. For some weeks afterwards, he was unable to lift his hand to his mouth. On 21 June , Coustos's public trial was held.

Along with other victims, he was made to walk in procession to the Church of Saint Dominic, where the king, the royal princes, members of the nobility and a substantial crowd waited in attendance. Coustos was accused of not confessing the heretical, disturbing and scandalous purpose for which he intended to introduce a new doctrine into the Catholic Realm, nor has he made true declaration in connection with the matters for which such inviolable secrecy is required.

Here, he was again visited by Irish monks, who promised him release in exchange for conversion to the Church. Coustos again refused; but from the infirmary, he managed to smuggle out a letter to his brother-in-law, who worked in the household of a prominent Freemason, the Earl of Harrington.

The earl spoke to a secretary of state at the time, the Duke of Newcastle, who instructed the British ambassador in Lisbon to effect Coustos's release. This finally occurred in October. There were no British ships in the vicinity; but a small Dutch fleet happened to be at anchor in the harbour, and Coustos was granted passage on a Dutch vessel by the admiral in command. The Inquisition was still sniffing about, looking for an excuse to rearrest him.

He was accordingly allowed aboard immediately. For the next three weeks, he remained there, while agents of the Inquisition rowed repeatedly around the fleet, trying to locate the ship on which he had found refuge. His health severely impaired, he arrived back in London on 15 December Of his ordeal, he wrote: Before that he wrote an account of his experience, The Sufferings of John Coustos for Freemasonry, which was published at the end of December , when the Jacobite rebellion instigated by Bonnie Prince Charlie was still in progress.

Not surprisingly, Coustos's book was seized upon for purposes of anti-Catholic, and thus anti-Jacobite, propaganda. It continued to exert an influence long afterwards, establishing an indelible portrait of the Inquisition in the minds of English readers and the English public.

Cagliostro and Casanova Supported by the judicial, civic and military authority of their respective crowns, the Spanish and Portuguese Inquisitions continued to operate with vigour throughout the eighteenth century, not only at home, but in colonies abroad as well.

Both were dismantled during Napoleon's occupation of the Iberian Peninsula and the campaign of reconquest that followed under the future Duke of Wellington; and Freemasons in the British army, as well as the French, displayed little sympathy towards the institution that had formerly persecuted them.

Towards the end of the Peninsular War, the Inquisition was reestablished by the restored and restabilised monarchies in Spain and Portugal. Its reestablishment, however, was to be short-lived. By the end of the first quarter of the nineteenth century, the Spanish and Portuguese Inquisitions were both defunct; and in the former colonies of Latin America, republics dominated largely by Freemasons were founded.

Elsewhere in Catholic Europe, the Holy Office, lacking the secular support of its Spanish and Portuguese counterparts, functioned in a more desultory fashion. Tenuous though its position was becoming, it did continue to flail out against Freemasonry; and in Italy especially, Freemasons continued to suffer from its ministrations. Among the more prominent victims was Joseph Balsamo, better known as Count Cagliostro. Born in Palermo in , Cagliostro travelled widely and was initiated into Freemasonry in London in He subsequently proceeded to devise his own brand, or rite, of Freemasonry, which he then attempted to disseminate across Europe.

In , he arrived in Rome to seek an audience with Pope Pius VI, whom he imagined would be sympathetic towards his Masonic rite and embrace it to the benefit of the Church. This might appear to have been naive; but Cagliostro in fact found the Roman clergy extremely receptive to his evangelism, and he made friends with high-ranking figures in a number of Catholic institutions, including the Knights of Malta. Encouraged by his success, he established his own Lodge in the Eternal City, which supposedly met at the palace of the Knights of Malta.

Its membership is reported to have included not only knights and nobles, but also clerical officials, ecclesiastics and at least one cardinal. The Pope, however, had already passed files pertaining to him on to the Holy Office. At the end of December , some seven months after his arrival in Rome, Cagliostro was arrested along with eight members of his Lodge, one of them American.

On 21 March , the Holy Office condemned him to death for heresy — a sentence commuted by the Pope to life imprisonment. On 4 May , the Pope ordered all Cagliostro's documents and manuscripts, Masonic regalia and accoutrements, to be burned in the Piazza Santa Maria Minerva by the public hangman.

One dossier, containing stray papers, personal notes and letters, apparently escaped the flames. In the early s, an Italian author, Roberto Gervaso, requested permission to examine this material, but was denied access to it by the head of the Holy Office.

After being expelled from seminary for allegedly outrageous conduct, Casanova, like Cagliostro, travelled widely and was initiated into Freemasonry in He was later to write that induction into a Lodge was a mandatory step in the education, development and career of any intelligent and well-bred young man who desired to make a mark in the world. When he returned to his native Venice, Casanova was pounced on by the Holy Office, who accused him of impiety and magical practices. After first being coerced into spying on Masonic and other suspect activities, he was imprisoned.

Eventually, in circumstances worthy of a swashbuckling thriller by Dumas, he managed to escape, and embarked on the career for which he subsequently became famous. Casanova's posthumously published memoirs established his reputation as an adventurer, a hustler, a confidence man, a seducer and amorist on a scale worthy of Don Juan. But he was also a gifted self-publicist, with an ego that cast a shadow the size of a blimp; and his memoirs unquestionably contain much exaggeration, much hyperbole, much poetic licence.

Quite apart from their lavish self-advertisement, however, they offer a profoundly insightful and revealing panorama of the manners and mores of the age. What is more, Casanova was a talented writer. He produced historical works in Italian and one phantasmagorical novel of some literary merit in French.

In , he published a detailed account of his imprisonment by the Holy Office and his escape, Histoire de ma fuite des prisons de Venise, which constitutes one of the most valuable sources available on the workings of the Holy Office during the latter part of the eighteenth century. That power, however, was soon to be curtailed and abrogated. The French Revolution, the revolutionary movements that ensued in Italy and Napoleon's invasion of the peninsula all left the Church, the Papacy and the Holy Office badly shaken.

So, too, did the French plundering of the Vatican's archives, much of which remains to this day in Paris, in the Arsenal Library. In several Italian cities, Freemasons sought vengeance on their former persecutors, and more than a few Inquisitors were obliged to flee lynch mobs. With Napoleon's fall, the Church, instigated by the Holy Office, resumed its self-proclaimed vendetta against Freemasonry, a campaign that would become progressively more rabid and more paranoid as the nineteenth century unfolded.

In , after Napoleon's first abdication, a new Bull against Freemasonry was promulgated. Pope Pius IX, who was subsequently to declare himself infallible, issued an encyclical condemning Freemasonry in , his first year of office, and followed it with further condemnations on no fewer than seven separate occasions.

In , he published an encyclical that constituted the most virulent denunciation of Freemasonry ever to issue from the Church. Read before all church doors at the Pope's explicit orders, the encyclical begins: The human race is divided into two different and opposing parties… The one is the Kingdom of God on earth — that is, the Church of Jesus Christ; the other is the kingdom of Satan.

Freemasons say openly what they had already in secret devised for a long time… that the very spiritual power of the Pope ought to be taken away, and the divine institution of the Roman Pontificate ought to disappear from the world.

In the late nineteenth century, during the pontificate of Leo XIII, two ingenious confidence tricksters are seen wandering about the provinces of southern France. They are dressed in clerical garb and carry with them a carefully prepared and detailed list of wealthy Catholics residing in the vicinity. They present themselves at the doors of these victims, gain admission and recount — in what purports to be the most urgent and portentous secrecy — a horrifying story.

The figure seen at intervals on the balcony of Saint Peter's is not, they report, the Pope. He is in fact a double, a lookalike, an impostor installed by means of a pernicious Masonic conspiracy. The real Holy Pontiff has been kidnapped by Freemasons. He is being held hostage under strict guard at some undisclosed location. Unless a stipulated ransom is raised in time, he will be executed, and the entire Papacy will be taken over by Freemasonry. In consequence, loyal and devout Catholics are being approached discreetly to make donations to the Pope's ransom.

Not surprisingly, the two confidence tricksters make off with a tidy fortune. Such stories were not uncommon at the time. There is no way of knowing which of several Gide might have had in mind, or how much artistic licence he took with the actual facts of the scam. But his narrative bears eloquent testimony to the trepidation about Freemasonry fostered by the Holy Office at the time, and the delusional paranoia to which the Church and its adherents were prone.

That paranoia has continued to the present day. As recently as the early s, lavishly printed four-page broadsheets from a hardline Catholic organisation were shoved through letter-boxes in London's Belgravia, once again alleging a nefarious Masonic conspiracy bent on world domination — and erroneously citing as Free-masons men such as Earl Mountbatten of Burma, who were never Freemasons at all.

Thory, Acta Latomorum, I, p. Eram tempos em que os acionistas de multinacionais de consumo exigiam uma presença maior em mercados emergentes. Comprar a Ypióca significaria dobrar, de uma só vez, de tamanho no Brasil. O cerne do problema é o próprio Telles — que vendeu, mas ainda manda muito em sua ex-empresa. Para complicar um pouco mais as coisas, a Diageo topou que Telles decida a que preço vai fornecer. Ou seja, ele cobra quanto quer. A Diageo pode até comprar de outros fornecedores.

A Diageo acabou comprando de Telles. Representantes da Diageo nas negociações lembram que a irredutibilidade de Telles nas reuniões semanais que ocorriam em Fortaleza os levava ao desespero. Em determinado momento, desapareceu por duas semanas. Jogo duro O jogo duro de Telles e a avidez da Diageo resultaram num negócio que, mesmo para os padrões eufóricos da época, parecia ter custado caro demais aos ingleses. A venda de cachaça no país vem caindo desde — o faturamento e o volume de vendas encolheram.

Com a estratégia definida de marca premium, aumentos de preço e esforço nas exportações, as vendas subiram. Todos os altos executivos envolvidos diretamente na compra da Ypióca deixaram a Diageo. Walsh e o ex-presidente para a América Latina Randy Millan se aposentaram.

O presidente no Brasil, Otto von Sothen, saiu depois de seis meses e hoje preside a fabricante de tubos Tigre ele afirma ter deixado a empresa para tocar negócios pessoais. Mas a dependência do fornecimento do ex-dono da Ypióca ainda é grande. Texto de Tatiana Bautzer publicado em "Exame" de 20 de agosto de Adaptado e ilustrado para ser postado por Leopoldo Costa.

Far from being a modern invention of the craft beer scene, pumpkin beers have a long history in the US. Samuel Stearns' The American herbal; or, Materia medica published in , name-checked pumpkin beer just after porter and ale. Stearns considered pumpkin beer especially healthful, noting: Pumpkin beer and brown sugar were more easily found in early America than their all-malt and refined counterparts, so they became part of the go-to recipe.

But the main reason pumpkin was adopted as a beer ingredient during the early colonial period was simple availability—pumpkins were a native plant one completely unknown to most Europeans before the 16th century , while good malt was not so readily accessible—fermentable sugars had to be found where they could, and in the first pumpkin beers, the meat of the pumpkin took the place of malt entirely.

Indeed, the role of the pumpkin in brewing and as a means of general sustenance was a key subject of a satirical song that has become known as "America's first folk song"— first written in , but rediscovered by folksong collectors of the 18th and 19th centuries: Hey down, down, hey down derry down Pumpkin beer continued to be a staple throughout the 18th century—one of the most oft-quoted recipes for pumpkin beer dates to —but its popularity began to wane by the early 19th century as the pumpkin itself began to be viewed as something quaint and rustic, and as access to quality malts became commonplace.

It re-appeared as a beer ingredient in the colonial revival of the s this time as a flavoring agent, as opposed to a full-blown pumpkin beer , but never regained its previous ubiquity. Modern pumpkin beers tend to aim for more of a 'pumpkin pie in a glass' as opposed to 'pumpkin in a glass' aesthetic; spices such as nutmeg and cloves are very common ingredients—but where did the notion of reviving pumpkin beer originate?

The honor goes to Buffalo Bill's Brewery, which has been making their America's Original Pumpkin Beer since the late s, using one of George Washington's recipes as an inspiration. Although the experimental batches used pumpkin as an ingredient, the commercial version stuck with pumpkin pie spices instead though there is now an Imperial Pumpkin Ale with actual pumpkin. Other modern pumpkin beers do use pumpkins—Brooklyn Brewery's Post Road Pumpkin Ale evokes the 18th century in its name using the name of the colonial road between Boston and New York and includes pumpkin in the recipe, while Dogfish Head's Punkin Ale also adds pumpkin to the mix.

With more than pumpkin beers to choose from today, modern drinkers may not be tasting anything like their beer's colonial ancestors, but it's still a nice and now, a tasty nod to brewing history. By Lisa Grimm available at "http: Noah We're born naked. In Western societies our baby nakedness is quickly covered with pretty clothes.

Small children are often allowed to run around naked at home, but by the time they're about three years old they've been carefully taught to keep their private parts covered.

While they are not yet aware of the fact that the genitals are for reproduction and fun, not just to pee with, they've learned that it's wrong to display them in public. The puritanical view that public nudity is sinful, and in most places criminal, stems from the time Eve fell for the snake's spiel about how it would make her and Adam like gods if they ate the forbidden fruit. Adam and Eve at first, we're told, "were naked Noah, who owned a vineyard, had imbibed too much wine when one of his sons, Ham, walked into the tent and saw his father naked in a drunken stupor.

Ham told his two brothers, who entered the tent backward with a robe over their shoulders to cover their father. When Noah sobered up and learned of Ham's violation of the sancrosanct taboo, he was so incensed that he condemned Ham to a life of servitude, a "servant of servants. Probably the first nudist cult anywhere in the world was established by the Egyptian pharaoh Amenhotep IV and his wife, Queen Nefertiti, who were avid sunbathers.

Amenhotep IV, at the age of 24, was crowned in BC, and moved the capitol from Thebes to a new location he named Akhtaton. The young king was an exceptionally independent thinker, and he had the support of his wife. He established a new religion based on the worship of only one god, which he called Aton, meaning "Disk of the Sun," and changed his name to Ikhnaton, meaning "pleases Aton.

Ikhnaton and Nefertiti and their seven daughters went naked in the palace, the gardens, and even, it is said, into the streets. They had temples built with exposure to the sun where their followers could worship in the nude and let their naked bodies be bathed in the sacred,life-giving rays of Aton. The deposed priests of the old religion of Amon-Re were understandably furious.

When Ikhnaton died, the throne went to a son-in-law, Senkenre, who after a few years was succeeded by another son-in-law, Tutankhaten, now known as "King Tut.

There is speculation that remnant followers of the monotheistic Aton religion may have influenced Moses during his formative years in Egypt.

Nakedness was a way of life in sports. Olympic athletes performed completely naked. The first Olympic festival of record was held in BC. Irrepressible physical fitness buffs, they built and used gymnasiums, from the Greek word gymnos, meaning "naked. The Spartans were physical fitness fanatics, and because the young people were encouraged to go with little clothing and no artificial adornment in public, Sparta was, in effect, a clothing-optional camp.

Women of Crete wore attractive clothing, but it was stylish to leave the breasts uncovered. They used cosmetics liberally, including the practice of enhancing the beauty of their breasts by applying lipstick to the nipples. The Romans copied many of the Greek customs, including the practice of exercising in the nude, and indulging communally in the famous Roman baths. They participated in Greek games, adopted the gymnasium for games and physical fitness, and acquired some of the aesthetic fascination for the beauty of the human body that had reached a peak of perfection with the Greeks.

Jesus was crucified nude "They parted his garments, casting lots" in accordance with the Roman custom of executing people in public as cruelly as possible and in a way that deprived them of all dignity.

Exercise was to be obtained through hard work or fighting, for which clothing was required, and anyone contemplating the unthinkable act of bathing nude in the sun would be guilty of the double transgression of immorality and sloth.

However, one of several nudist cults was a group of early Christians, the Adamiani, a sect based on The Gospel of St. Thomas that flourished in northern Africa during the second and third centuries AD.

They went naked to religious services as well as often during everyday life. Their spiritual descendants, the Adamites, calling themselves "brothers and sisters of the free spirit," came into existence in Germany and Holland in the Middle Ages. They believed in ritual nakedness and were severely persecuted for it. In most segments of the Greco-Roman world during the early Christian era, nudism and physical fitness became unfashionable or officially prohibited.

The Christian Roman Emperor Theodosius padlocked the gymnasiums throughout the empire about AD, and his successor, Justinian, abolished the Olympic Games, declaring them pagan ceremonies.

Obsession with evils of the body led one of the Popes to order drapes painted over Michelangelo's figures on the lower panels in the Sistine Chapel. Fortunately, the ceiling panels were too high to be conveniently reached. The ancient Cretan custom of upper-class women exposing their breasts was revived during the seventeenth century in Europe with formal wear that barely covered the nipples.

Women who could not compete with the more spectacularly endowed beauties simply took satisfaction in their higher level of modesty and decorum. Hugh Lester tells the story in Godiva Rides Again of the Victorian period when missionaries went all over the world trying to get natives to cover their nakedness. The Emperor of Japan, eager to adopt European culture, decreed that everyone must cover their pubic area when swimming.

His subjects, taking the Emperor's order literally, disported on the beach in the nude as usual, and dutifully slipped on trunks before going in the water. Modern nudism, as a fashion, first appeared in Germany during the s, where organizations conducted exercise classes, similar to today's physical fitness centers except the members, male and female including children, performed as a group under strict discipline, and in the nude.

Outdoor nudism also flourished, attracting thousands of people to organized nudist parks and selected beaches where clothing was optional. Meanwhile, the Scandinavians were quietly continuing their venerable habit of taking steam baths in the nude, and astonishingly to the uninitiated, adding the additional stimulation of cooling off quickly, naked, in the snow or jumping into the icy water of a lake.

Nudism for physical fitness did not catch on quickly in southern Europe, England, or the United States, but it did make a hit more recently on a few beaches, the most famous of which is Saint-Tropez on the French Riviera, where thousands of locals and tourists flock to feast their eyes on the beauty of topless and nude sunbathers. The first nudist park in the United States opened in near Spring Valley, New York, by a small group that called themselves the American League for Physical Culture, founded primarily through the efforts of a German immigrant, Kurt Barthel, who had experienced Freikorperkultur free body culture in Germany.

The group grew so fast that later the same year they moved to a larger site near Dover, New Jersey. Among those who joined the League was a preacher named Ilsley Boone. The Reverend Boone was a man of remarkable vitality and talents, who had a distinguished record of achievements as a theological scholar, author, and promoter of education using innovative visual aid techniques. Known to League members and followers as "Uncle Danny," the Reverend Boone created his own organization, which he called the International Nudist Conference, and started a magazine called "The Nudist", with airbrushed pictures to cover the genital anatomy of people otherwise in the nude.

The magazine was a success, partly because of publicity from the howls of protest about its being shameless and obscene.

Nudists in the United States realized from the beginning that they would have to conduct themselves in a way that would avoid public antagonism. Most of the parks screened applicants to determine if they were serious about the health values of nudism, and if they were the type of people who would be discrete.

But, despite everything, nudist parks were frequently raided by sheriffs and their deputies, usually accompanied by cameramen and often by news reporters. Raids were sometimes preceded by aircraft surveillance, usually in response to citizen complaints of what they imagined was going on.

More than once, members were handcuffed and hauled off to jail. In one case a fully dressed woman was ordered by police to undress so photographers could take her picture naked. In Michigan, a sheriff raided a newly opened park called the Sun Sport League, and arrested everyone there. Two fishermen had appeared at an opportune time along a small stream that ran across the property, open to fishing but virtually unfishable, making it possible to indict the nudists for "indecent exposure.

The Michigan Supreme Court upheld the conviction, so the Rings went to jail, the first martyrs to nudism in the United States. Post Office saw it as their duty to protect the country from immorality. Anthony Comstock, a special agent for the U.

Postal Service, started in an unrelenting crusade against "smut" during which he confiscated many classical literary and pictorial works by writers and artists. In what was intended to be a crippling move against nudist magazines, the Post Office under Comstock's guidance refused to send nudist literature at a rate lower than first-class mail.

The Postal Service conducted a series of hearings over a ten-year period to build a case against what they viewed as obscenity. The courts generally supported the organizations' right to publish their magazines, but some of Comstock's rulings remained in force many years after his death.

Meanwhile legislators were not idle. The bill was enthusiastically supported by Governor Al Smith, who was about to make a run for the presidency of the United States.

Although not acted on until the administration of Governor Lehman, and signed by him, the antinudist law was known as the Al Smith Law. A similar law was defeated in Michigan. Still, law enforcement officers were usually able to find a legal reason, no matter how remote, for raiding nudist parks.

The early nudist clubs were formed by courageous types who were willing to flout convention because they were devoted to nakedness on principle as a healthful and wholesome way to enjoy relaxation and play.

They had nothing in common with nudity in nightclubs and topless bars, the sole purpose of which was and is to titillate, and especially in nude bars where men, and occasionally women, go for a quick voyeuristic thrill, and where touching is forbidden for fear of "incidents. In a good location, they can do quite well on tips.

Most of them say they do not do "tricks," but it's reported that some of them do. A historical counterpart of the nudist clubs was the Esalen type encounter group which introduced nudity as group therapy. These groups take nakedness a step further by encouraging closeness and touching as a means of discovering sensuality in self and others. The Esalen Institute was founded in by Michael Murphy, whose grandfather, a Salinas physician, had purchased in a acre tract on the wild and rugged Big Sur coastline miles south of San Francisco with the idea of creating a health spa made possible by the natural endowment of hot mineral springs.

The name Esalen comes from the Esalen Indians who once occupied the area. It is part of the Esalen belief that the power of touch in fostering empathy, understanding, and friendship, as well as having a therapeutic effect, is a valuable but often ignored human resource. Freud encouraged psychological nakedness to reveal our deepest, most hidden thoughts and longings.

Besides, as Alex Comfort, author of "The Joy of Sex", pointed out, "Social nakedness has always had ritual value and nakedness in general has had magical value. Though the ideological nudist, who undressed on principle, is being replaced by people who simply undress because they feel like it, we may elect to keep nudity for special places and occasions in order to preserve its ritual and bonding value".

Public nudity is one of them. It's easy physically but there can be psychological obstacles. When I decided honesty required me to experience nudity, I thought of several ways I might get by with less than honesty. Then I thought of the carefree days of my youth when the gang would go skinny-dipping in any available isolated pond, of the days when we went in our own pool out on the ranch, sans shorts, not caring who peeked, of the days in later years when I always went swimming nude in our own pool unless visitors were around to be shocked, and how the exhilaration of being free and unfettered made clothing unthinkable except when demanded by social convention.

Descriptions and locations of nudist clubs and nude beaches can be found in several publications? For years, I had known of several "nudist colonies" on the West Coast. I decided to visit one of the remote ones, the Sierra Sunburn Club, although that's not its real name, and was introduced to an official host, whom I shall call Jim, who offered to escort me on a tour of the club.

The Club is not clothing optional. For an agonizing moment I tried to decide which would be more embarrassing, to strip naked or cut and run.

I was relieved when my host said, "You can leave your clothes on until two o'clock. We took our tour in a golf cart over paved roads, past a swimming pool, tennis courts, volleyball and basketball courts, softball diamond, picnic area, horseshoe pits, rows of rental trailers, RV spaces with full hookups, an area for tent campers, and a nondenominational chapel.

We drove past a convenience store and stopped at the clubhouse and pool area where there are two pools, one indoors and heated, an outdoor spa, and a sauna. We walked through the communal showers where a lone woman, exceptionally attractive I noticed, was taking a shower. The only gender segregation I could see were separate male and female restrooms.

I noticed an open area. Married men and women must be accompanied in the club by their spouses if they are not members. No cameras or videocameras except for official club photographers covering special events. And if you're around the pool and recreation areas, no glass containers, bicycles or dogs, and no radios without earphones. My host takes a dim view of nude beaches.

Unlike most private nudist clubs and parks, where members participate under established rules and customs, and in any case have the privacy of their own environs, public nude beaches or so-called "free" beaches are frequented by people of diverse interest and motives.

Later, I drove down the coast to a place south of San Clemente, and hiked to a sandy beach protected by high, treacherous cliffs. Not Usage Meta Icon: Not Usage Meta Image: Not Usage Responsive mobile compatible: Not Usage Code Type: Not Used External Link: Big Star Service S.

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He published his increasingly bewildering results in a series of papers between and Not being a masochist or a particularly heroic individual, Coustos endeavoured to satisfy his persecutors. In the same paper he reported the counter-intuitive result:

In she decided to undertake more wide-ranging surveys, branching out to ethnic neighborhoods whose populations hailed from greening-infested regions. And that is how she found the diseased pomelo tree in Miami, which grew in the backyard of a woman from Taiwan. Each female lays up to eggs in her one-month life span, resulting in populations on a single orange tree that can exceed 40, bugs.

With that many insects hopping and flying around, even pesticides with a kill rate of 99 percent leave plenty of survivors. Winds from Katrina and other tropical storms may have blown psyllids farther than they could travel on their own. The storms may have also weakened trees and made them more susceptible to infections. And then there is the fact that as an invasive species, the Asian citrus psyllid has no native, specialized predators in the U.

This situation set entomologists in search of an insect that could wreak havoc with psyllids the way psyllids had wreaked havoc with orchards. Send in the Wasps On a hot day last summer Mark and Christina Hoddle packed up a rented white Ford sedan and made the one-hour drive from their home in Riverside, Calif. A small blue Rubbermaid cooler sat on the backseat. Inside it was an ice pack and half a dozen vials containing wasps feasting on small drops of honey.

As Mark drove, Christina flipped through a sheaf of papers with data on the research sites they would visit. California is the U. Officials began spraying insecticides in San Diego, but soon the psyllids spread to Los Angeles and continued moving up the coast.

They needed a new plan. The Hoddles are entomologists at the University of California, Riverside, and experts on invasive species. Soon after the first Asian citrus psyllid was detected in the state, Mark read a paper by scientists in Punjab.

When, where and how huanglongbing, psyllids and citrus all met up, however, is still an open question. The genus Citrus was long thought to have evolved in China, but recent research by Andrew Beattie of the University of Western Sydney in Australia and his colleagues suggests it first appeared in Australasia some 35 million years ago and spread to Asia. If citrus and huanglongbing had come together earlier, citrus would have either developed resistance by now or died off.

Beattie suspects this jump took place in Africa, when a citrus psyllid transferred the bacteria to an imported orange or mandarin tree that was then shipped to India as part of the colonial trade.

Human cultivation has played a role as well. Psyllids lay their eggs on the tender shoots of budding trees, which are easier for nymphs to feed on. Thanks to irrigation and the use of fertilizer, citrus trees grow and bud rapidly, creating a tempting salad bar for psyllids of all ages.

He then discovered, seemingly by kismet, that the vice chancellor of the major agricultural university in Punjab was a graduate of U.

In early he and Christina headed to Pakistan to learn everything they could about T. Mark, working with the California Department of Food and Agriculture, secured a permit from the usda and set up a wasp-rearing operation under quarantine to ensure that the incoming insects were disease-free. He and his postdoctoral student also spent months testing T.

Finally, he and Christina set up a complex sequence of cages inside a series of quarantine labs at U. Riverside to allow the wasps to multiply on Asian citrus psyllids infesting small citrus plants.

Since December the Hoddles have released thousands of T. Despite the heat, he and Christina were dressed in long-sleeved shirts and long pants — the sun-protective clothing they wear in the field. Although the Asian citrus psyllid was first spotted in San Diego, it seems to have moved fastest through Los Angeles.

Backyard lemon and lime trees are very popular here, and many people bring them in across the border from Mexico or smuggle cuttings inside their suitcases when flying back from Asia. The branch of an infected lemon tree can easily be grafted onto a lime or pomelo tree, and the plant will produce both varieties of fruit. Once psyllids arrived in Los Angeles, they reproduced feverishly on these backyard trees, just as they did in Florida.

The California Department of Food and Agriculture had started spraying pesticides in Los Angeles to control the psyllids and prevent them from spreading, but the effort rapidly proved futile. One need only glance at census data to see what went wrong. Of the more than three million houses in Los Angeles, about 40 percent had at least one citrus tree in That means about 1.

Sprays last only one week to several months and then need to be reapplied. Once the state suspended its pesticide campaign in Los Angeles, it was safe for the Hoddles and their wasps to move in. They had found the site by examining state data on the number of psyllids caught in sticky yellow traps set all over Los Angeles.

This garden had a particularly high count. Christina headed over to a curry bush a relative of citrus at the edge of the parking lot. She examined its shiny green leaves and immediately spotted large clusters of Asian citrus psyllids at every stage of their life cycle. At the tips of the branches, littering the newly sprung buds, were yellowish-orange eggs, whitish wingless nymphs, and brown mottled adults hopping and crawling about. Three weeks earlier the Hoddles had released a few dozen wasps on some lemon trees on the far side of the lot, and they wanted to see if the wasps had made their way to this shrub; if they did, it would show that the wasps were beginning to proliferate on their own.

The news was good: A female wasp kills a psyllid es sentially by laying an egg under its belly. The wasp larva seals itself inside the shell by spinning silk that attaches the shell firmly to the leaf.

It then weaves its cocoon, pops out as an adult and chews a small hole at the top of the psyllid husk to escape. Christina and Mark observed several hollowed-out psyllid husks on the curry plant. Using this powerful combination of killing techniques, a single wasp can kill hundreds of psyllids. Before leaving, the Hoddles hung a few more of their vials on the curry plant and opened the lids to allow the wasps to fl y out and begin their hunt. As of last December, the Hoddles estimate that the wasps they have released have become established at about 40 percent of their release sites in California and are fanning out to new psyllid-infested neighborhoods, sometimes several miles away.

The wasps will not solve the problem, however. The state released its first batch of parasitic wasps in , and starting later this year, it plans to release millions more from Pakistan, Vietnam and China in urban areas where the state has stopped spraying pesticides. In response, many Florida growers started feeding extra nutrients to the trees through leaf sprays. With the arrival of HLB, plant disease experts advised growers to pull up any tree that was infected. Yet by the time the disease was discovered in Florida, it was so widespread that pulling up infected trees may have run Boyd and Willis out of business.

When Boyd and Willis refused to pull up their trees, experts told them their plants would be dead within five years. But seven years later they are still here, and they say their yield is undiminished. Last November, Willis drove his pickup truck through his groves on a routine survey.

The trees were lush and hung with large, ripe yellow Hamlin oranges, an early variety harvested in late fall and early winter. Still, no one knows how long his good fortune will last. Gottwald, an epidemiologist at the U. He and several colleagues have published controlled studies showing that enhanced nutrition programs have no effect on tree health, fruit quality or yield. In fact, Gottwald argues, they can be detrimental because they mask symptoms and turn trees into Typhoid Marys.

Neighboring grower Southern Gardens Citrus, which supplies orange juice to the major brands, took a different path. Rick Kress, president of Southern Gardens, says that the company is replacing more than , infected trees — one quarter of its stock — with clean nursery trees that have been grown inside psyllid-proof screens.

Workers continue to monitor groves for signs of greening, although trees can harbor C. Liberibacter for months or years before the bacteria start showing up in lab tests or causing visible symptoms, which makes the disease difficult to eradicate. While Kress has reduced the infection rate of his trees, his costs are up 40 to 50 percent.

Scientists are desperately seeking new approaches. Some studies have shown that feeding penicillin to infected orange trees through their roots and via trunk injections can help them outgrow their symptoms and develop stronger roots. In Jim Graham of the University of Florida found that the bactericide copper sulfate has a similar effect.

Copper sulfate might pass EPA regulations more easily than penicillin because it is not used to treat humans. But plants would need to receive injections for the rest of their lives at a potentially prohibitive cost.

The best long-term prospects may lie with genetic modification. Researchers at Cornell University are developing citrus trees that would repel Asian citrus psyllids, and the two technologies may eventually be combined.

But genetically modified produce faces a long and expensive path to regulatory approval and public acceptance. Many worry it will not arrive in time to save the industry.

In the Europe of the early seventeenth century — a Europe no longer subject to the Church's hegemony — heresies, mysticism and mystically oriented philosophies were proliferating. There were a number of ultimately futile attempts to institutionalise the mystical experience and establish it as a new, all-encompassing world religion — with, inevitably and paradoxically, its own accompanying dogma diluting and distorting it.

And there were attempts as well to adapt mysticism to politics, and establish an ideal Utopian state resting on mystical foundations.

Such, for example, was the vogue of so-called Rosicrucian thought that began to appear around and was hailed by its exponents as a harbinger of a new Golden Age. The Church unquestionably felt threatened by Rosicrucianism, and the Holy Office duly added suspected Rosicrucians to its list of deviants. Like witches, Rosicrucians were to be hunted down, ferreted out and vigorously prosecuted.

But the chief culprit in Rome's eyes remained Protestantism, with which Rosicrucianism was more or less tenuously associated. It was, after all, Protestantism that had created the circumstances and the spiritual climate in which Rosicrucianism, along with other forms of heterodox thought, could thrive.

And thus Protestantism remained the primary target of the Counter-Reformation. If the Jesuits and the rechristened Holy Office represented the Counter-Reformation in the sphere of thought, teaching and doctrine, the corresponding social, political and military offensive was conducted — at least initially and ostensibly — by the Catholic armies of Habsburg Spain and the Habsburg Holy Roman Empire.

This offensive occurred in the form of the Thirty Years War —48 — a conflict akin to a world war in the modern sense, and the most appalling, costly and catastrophic conflict to be fought on European soil prior to the twentieth century. In this war, the Church was not only ultimately thwarted, but, in its own eyes, scandalously betrayed. By the time hostilities ended, Rome's authority was even more fragmented and precarious than it had been before.

Having been engaged in her own civil war, England, under Cromwell's Protectorate, was even more securely Protestant than ever. The Protestantism of Scandinavia and the North German states was equally unassailable; and Protestant Holland had emerged as a major world power, at least at sea and abroad.

The Protestant naval powers of England and Holland now fought each other for control of the oceans, and of the colonies, formerly dominated exclusively by Catholic Spain and Portugal. Worst of all for the Church, France had supplanted Spain as the supreme military power on the continent; and she had done so by aligning herself with the avowed enemy. And Richelieu, a Catholic cardinal implementing policy for a predominantly Catholic country, proceeded to deploy Catholic troops on behalf of the Protestant cause.

Although other countries, especially Sweden, had repeatedly thwarted the Church's military power, it was ultimately the army of Catholic France that shattered the martial supremacy of Catholic Spain. The Thirty Years War had commenced as a predominantly religious conflict, with Catholic armies endeavouring to extirpate Protestantism in Bohemia and Germany.

By the time the war ended, it had turned into a conflict of vested interests fought for the sake of the balance of power; and religion had become both incidental and subordinate to secular concerns. The regime jealously guarded its independence of Papal control. It even possessed the right to appoint its own bishops.

Such was the situation in the aftermath of the Thirty Years War and during the latter half of the seventeenth century. By , the Church's authority on the continent had become even more eroded, its position even more precarious.

In , James II of England had converted to Catholicism, and the Papacy was able for a brief moment to envisage itself reinstated as the official religious power of the British Isles. There ensued the Siege of Londonderry and, in and respectively, the two decisive battles of the Boyne and Aughrim. As a result, James was deposed and Parliament enacted legislation that prevented a Catholic from ever sitting on the British throne.

The now Catholic Stuarts fled into exile, whence they repeatedly attempted to foment rebellions in Scotland, culminating with the campaign of Charles Edward Stuart, Bonnie Prince Charlie, in — 6. Nothing was to come of any of these endeavours.

Even if the campaign had succeeded, it is questionable whether Bonnie Prince Charlie's Presbyterian supporters would have accepted a Catholic monarch; and had he been forced to choose between the Church and the British throne, the prince would almost certainly have chosen the latter.

On the continent, Spain, formerly the supreme military and naval executor of the Church, had been reduced to lame-duck status; and by , Europe's other great powers, indifferent altogether to Rome, were fighting over whether the increasingly decrepit Spanish Empire was to be ruled by a Bourbon or a Habsburg. Austria remained nominally Catholic and managed to repel a major Islamic thrust westwards. By the mid eighteenth century, however, her influence in central Europe was being challenged and neutralised by the advent of a new and dangerous Protestant power to the north, the fledgling Kingdom of Prussia, created in During the wars of the period, Russia, too, made her début on the chessboard of European politics, bringing a further threat to Rome in the form of the Orthodox Church.

Of the Catholic powers that had formerly been the Church's executive in secular spheres, only France remained. However, France fiercely maintained her independence from Rome. And though still nominally Catholic, she now began to pose the greatest threat of all — a threat in the world of ideas and values, and thus more difficult to oppose than any military or political edifice.

Under the influence of Cartesian rationalism, France, by the mid eighteenth century, had assumed the vanguard of anti-clerical sentiment and become a veritable hotbed of hostility — towards organised religion in general and towards Catholicism in particular.

To the mortification of the ecclesiastical hierarchy, Rome became a species of running joke, the object of merciless derision. In consigning the authors of this derision to the Index, the Holy Office only contrived to look more puerile, more humiliatingly impotent.

If Cartesian rationalism and the writings of les philosophes represented major challenges to the Church, a challenge of comparable magnitude was presented by the dissemination of Freemasonry.

The institution now known as Freemasonry had coalesced, at least in something like its modern form, in Scotland and England during the early seventeenth century.

By the end of Cromwell's Protectorate and the restoration of the Stuarts to the British throne in , Freemasonry seems to have been widespread throughout the British Isles, and increasingly supportive of the ruling dynasty. But when the Stuarts were driven into exile, they took Freemasonry with them; and in the years that followed, it proceeded to proliferate rapidly across the continent. According to the documentation now available, the first Lodge outside the British Isles was founded in Paris in by Charles Radclyffe, later Earl of Derwentwater, an illegitimate grandson of Charles II.

Before his death, however, he founded additional Lodges in France, and Freemasonry acquired an irresistible momentum of its own. In , having been initiated as a Mason five years earlier, François, Duke ofLorraine, married Maria Theresa von Habsburg, thus becoming joint ruler of the Austrian Empire. He founded a Lodge in Vienna and extended his protection over Freemasonry throughout the Habsburg domains.

The first Lodge was founded in Italy in , in Holland in , in Sweden in , in Switzerland in The first German Lodge was established at Hamburg in A year later, the future Frederick the Great of Prussia was initiated and subsequently founded his own Lodge at his castle of Rheinsberg. In , a Lodge was founded in Berlin.

By that time, the number of Lodges in Holland and Sweden had become sufficiently great to warrant the creation of a national Grand Lodge. By , there were ten Lodges in Geneva alone. In the very teeth of the Inquisition, Lodges were also established in Spain and Portugal.

By the mid eighteenth century, Freemasonry had reached every corner of western Europe. It had already spread across the Atlantic to the Americas. It was soon to extend eastwards into Russia, as well as to European colonies in Asia, the Indian subcontinent and the Pacific. They included prominent literary figures such as Montesquieu, Diderot, Voltaire and, by the end of the eighteenth century, Goethe and Schiller.

The threat posed to the Church by Freemasonry was manifold. In the first place, many if not most Lodges of the time subscribed in at least some measure to Cartesian rationalism, and thus served as a conduit for modes of thought inimical to Catholicism.

Freemasonry never pretended to be a rival or alternative religion; but it raised spiritual questions and thereby presented challenges to the dogmatic, docile and obsequious faith demanded by Rome. While Rome clung stubbornly to dogma that had not changed for centuries, Freemasonry embraced the rapidly changing world of the eighteenth century, with its commerce, industry and scientific progress. That world also included significant social reform, with an unprecedented emphasis on egalitarianism and the rights of man.

While the Church looked backwards, Freemasonry looked forwards; and when Rome contemplated the future, that future seemed more likely to be influenced by the Lodge than by the pulpit.

There were other grounds for concern. Until the Reformation, the Church, if only in theory, had represented the supreme arbiter of western Christendom. In effect, it served, or was supposed to serve, as an international forum — the equivalent for the time of the League of Nations, or the United Nations. If only in theory, secular disputes between rival potentates, for example, were subject to arbitration and judgement by the Church. The Church was authorised and mandated to act as negotiator, as peace-broker and facilitator of reconciliation.

This role had been dramatically restricted by the Reformation. Protestant churches were hardly prepared to accept Catholic authority in either spiritual or temporal matters. But Catholicism still retained enough currency on the continent — in France, in Austria and southern Germany, in Italy, in Spain and Portugal — to offer at least some common ground on which rapprochement might be established.

It was precisely in this area that Freemasonry threatened to encroach on the Church's traditional functions, possibly even to usurp them. Unlike the Church, the network of Lodges transcended denomination, enabling Catholics and Protestants to talk to each other without the fetters of doctrine and dogma.

The proliferating web of Lodges afforded both a conduit for the transmission of messages and a forum for high-level inter-governmental and international contacts, for off-the-record discussion of treaties, for delicate diplomatic negotiations. Thus, for example, Protestant Prussia, under Frederick the Great, and Catholic Austria, under Maria Theresa and François ofLorraine, might be at war — as indeed they were on two separate occasions between and But both Frederick and François were Freemasons, as were many of their ministers and military commanders.

Through the Lodges, peace feelers might be extended and common ground established in a way that was no longer possible through the Church. Through the Lodges, new alliances might be formed, new alignments and configurations to maintain the balance of power in equilibrium.

It goes without saying, of course, that the potentialities offered by the Lodges were not always actualised, and as often as not, remained purely theoretical. But the Church's capacity for arbitration had seldom been more than theoretical either; and the Lodges were at least as successful as the Church at turning theory into practice. Even if war could not be averted, it could be made to conform, insofar as possible, to scrupulously observed rules and certain premises of the Enlightenment promulgated by the Lodges.

In part, this reflected a revulsion from the excesses of such conflicts as the Thirty Years War, but it also stemmed from an absence of religious hatred and fanaticism, and a recognition of certain increasingly respected codes. These codes owed more than a little to the ideas, attitudes and values disseminated by the Lodges.

Attacks upon Freemasonry Alarmed by the vigorous spread of Freemasonry and by the threats the institution posed, the Church proceeded to act. The conference was attended by three cardinals, the heads of the primary Papal Congregations and the Inquisitor General.

Their sole topic of discussion was Freemasonry. According to these reports, the assembled ecclesiastics were convinced that Freemasonry was but a façade for some much vaster, all-encompassing, clandestine heresy of an altogether new kind. It is difficult to imagine what the clerics believed such a heresy might entail to generate such extreme anxiety.

In any case, the Berlin journal reported, Freemasons were already being arrested. Later in the year, anti-Masonic riots instigated by unseen hands erupted in a number of towns. It was growing increasingly clear that powerful interests behind the scenes were beginning to mobilise against Freemasonry.

Nine months after the conference in Florence, on 28 April , Pope Clement issued the first of what was to become an increasingly belligerent sequence of Bulls on the subject. The Bull, In eminenti, began: Being reluctant to antagonise the Church, a number of European regimes acted at once.

As early as the previous summer, the police in France had begun to arrest Lodge members and confiscate their literature — from which much of our knowledge of French Freemasonry at the time derives. In Poland, Freemasonry was banned throughout the kingdom. In Sweden, participation in Masonic rituals was declared punishable by death.

Encouraged by this response, the Church hardened its position. All Freemasons everywhere were threatened with the confiscation of their possessions, excommunication and death. Shortly thereafter, a number of Freemasons in Florence were arrested, imprisoned and tortured.

Others were released through the intervention of François of Lorraine, whose titles included that of Grand Duke of Tuscany. Despite such measures, however, and to the profound consternation of the Holy Office, Catholics continued to join Lodges in substantial numbers. More worrisome still, the Lodges were beginning to attract not only lay Catholics, but priests as well, and even several high-level clergy.

A Lodge in Mainz, for example, was composed almost entirely of clergy. Another, in Münster, included the presiding bishop's own officials. At Erfurt, the future bishop founded a Lodge himself, which convened in the rooms of the abbot at a prominent monastery. A Lodge in Vienna included two royal chaplains, the rector of the theological college and two other priests. Another Viennese Lodge counted no fewer than thirteen priests among its membership.

By the end of the eighteenth century, the list of high-ranking Catholic Freemasons was augmented by numerous abbots and bishops, one imperial chaplain, one cardinal and at least five archbishops. And the Church, increasingly bereft of secular armies to impose its authority, was significantly more impotent than it had been at the time of the Reformation.

Where the Holy Office's writ still ran enforceably, however, Freemasons were fair game, and pursued as assiduously as witches had been in the past. This was particularly so in Spain and Portugal, where a national Inquisition, accountable to the Crown, still operated. Shortly after the first Papal pronouncement against Freemasonry in , the Spanish Inquisition raided a Lodge in Madrid and arrested its members, eight of whom were sentenced to the galleys. In , the Inquisition completed a four-year investigation into Freemasonry.

In that same year, one Inquisitor, Father Joseph Torrubia, joined a Lodge himself in order to spy, to collect information and denounce members. According to his reports, there were ninety-seven Lodges in Spain at the time.

In the end, they would emerge triumphant. After the Napoleonic Wars and the restoration of the Spanish monarchy, it was the Inquisition that was dismantled. A similar story obtained for Portugal. In certain of his works, the novelist José Saramago, winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature in , depicts the omnipresence of the Portuguese Inquisition well into the eighteenth century. Like its counterpart in Spain, it needed a scapegoat to justify its continued existence, and Freemasonry was an obvious candidate for the role.

One particularly notorious case was that of John Coustos, a Swiss-born diamond cutter resident in England since childhood, naturalised and duly initiated as a Freemason.

In , Coustos had established a Lodge of his own in Paris. In , impelled by the discovery of diamonds in Brazil, he moved to Lisbon and founded a Lodge there. It included no Portuguese members, only other foreign diamond cutters, traders, merchants, goldsmiths and a ship's captain. It was nevertheless denounced to the Portuguese Inquisition, which, in March of , proceeded to act. The first member of the Lodge to be arrested was a French jeweller.

On a pretext of business, agents of the Inquisition visited him at noon, just as he was closing his shop for siesta. He was summarily arrested, searched for weapons and forbidden to speak. He was then hustled out into a small closed carriage, driven off and imprisoned in the dungeon of the Inquisition's palace without being allowed to contact anyone. To account for his disappearance, the Inquisition disseminated a rumour that he had absconded with a quantity of diamonds. Four days later, on 5 March , Coustos himself was arrested.

At ten in the evening, he emerged from a coffee house where he had been chatting with two friends. Outside, nine officers of the Inquisition were waiting with the customary small closed carriage. His sword being taken from him, he was handcuffed and driven rapidly to the Inquisition's palace, where he, too, was consigned to the dungeon.

Here he was left in solitude for two days, receiving no visitors, hearing only moans and cries from the surrounding cells and corridors. At last, there began a prolonged sequence of torture and interrogation.

The Inquisition, it transpired, desired to know everything possible about Freemasonry and the extent of the Lodges' activity in Portugal.

Not being a masochist or a particularly heroic individual, Coustos endeavoured to satisfy his persecutors. In the course of several sessions of interrogation, he volunteered a good many details on the rituals and practice of Freemasonry and named twelve other members of his Lodge, all foreign nationals, most of them French.

Despite having taken down pages of information and confession, however, the Inquisitors were not convinced they had learned everything Coustos had to tell. What was more, they insisted that he convert to Catholicism.

This he refused to do, even when English and Irish monks resident in Lisbon at the time were brought in to exhort him. The Inquisition's files on Coustos's case still exist and run to some pages. They include the text of an exhaustively detailed confession. He was conducted to a square tower-like room with no windows and no illumination save that of two candles. The doors were padded to muffle all sound. The victim was seized by six assistants, who stripped him of most of his clothes and fastened him to the rack with an iron collar around his neck and an iron ring on each foot, two ropes around each arm and two around each thigh.

Four men then proceeded to stretch his limbs by drawing the ropes tight — so tight that the ropes cut through his flesh and caused him to bleed from all eight lacerations. When he fainted, he was returned to his cell to recover. The Inquisition's documents describe the punctiliousness with which the legal niceties were observed.

Thus the Doctor and Surgeon and the other Ministers of the torture approached the Bench where they were given the oath of the Holy Gospels, on which they placed their hands, and promised faithfully and truly to carry out their duties, and the torture prescribed for the accused was then ordered to be executed, and stripped of those clothes which might impede the proper execution of the torture, he was placed on the rack and the binding commenced and he was then informed by me, the notary, that if he died during the operation, or if a limb was broken, or if he lost any of his senses, the fault would be his, and not of the Lords Inquisitors.

The process was repeated three times, after which he was returned to his cell. A thick chain was wound around his stomach and attached at each arm to a rope, which was progressively tightened by means of a windlass. His stomach was severely bruised, his shoulders were dislocated again and his wrists as well.

When a surgeon had reset his bones, the whole procedure was repeated. For some weeks afterwards, he was unable to lift his hand to his mouth. On 21 June , Coustos's public trial was held. Along with other victims, he was made to walk in procession to the Church of Saint Dominic, where the king, the royal princes, members of the nobility and a substantial crowd waited in attendance.

Coustos was accused of not confessing the heretical, disturbing and scandalous purpose for which he intended to introduce a new doctrine into the Catholic Realm, nor has he made true declaration in connection with the matters for which such inviolable secrecy is required. Here, he was again visited by Irish monks, who promised him release in exchange for conversion to the Church. Coustos again refused; but from the infirmary, he managed to smuggle out a letter to his brother-in-law, who worked in the household of a prominent Freemason, the Earl of Harrington.

The earl spoke to a secretary of state at the time, the Duke of Newcastle, who instructed the British ambassador in Lisbon to effect Coustos's release. This finally occurred in October.

There were no British ships in the vicinity; but a small Dutch fleet happened to be at anchor in the harbour, and Coustos was granted passage on a Dutch vessel by the admiral in command.

The Inquisition was still sniffing about, looking for an excuse to rearrest him. He was accordingly allowed aboard immediately. For the next three weeks, he remained there, while agents of the Inquisition rowed repeatedly around the fleet, trying to locate the ship on which he had found refuge.

His health severely impaired, he arrived back in London on 15 December Of his ordeal, he wrote: Before that he wrote an account of his experience, The Sufferings of John Coustos for Freemasonry, which was published at the end of December , when the Jacobite rebellion instigated by Bonnie Prince Charlie was still in progress.

Not surprisingly, Coustos's book was seized upon for purposes of anti-Catholic, and thus anti-Jacobite, propaganda. It continued to exert an influence long afterwards, establishing an indelible portrait of the Inquisition in the minds of English readers and the English public.

Cagliostro and Casanova Supported by the judicial, civic and military authority of their respective crowns, the Spanish and Portuguese Inquisitions continued to operate with vigour throughout the eighteenth century, not only at home, but in colonies abroad as well. Both were dismantled during Napoleon's occupation of the Iberian Peninsula and the campaign of reconquest that followed under the future Duke of Wellington; and Freemasons in the British army, as well as the French, displayed little sympathy towards the institution that had formerly persecuted them.

Towards the end of the Peninsular War, the Inquisition was reestablished by the restored and restabilised monarchies in Spain and Portugal. Its reestablishment, however, was to be short-lived. By the end of the first quarter of the nineteenth century, the Spanish and Portuguese Inquisitions were both defunct; and in the former colonies of Latin America, republics dominated largely by Freemasons were founded.

Elsewhere in Catholic Europe, the Holy Office, lacking the secular support of its Spanish and Portuguese counterparts, functioned in a more desultory fashion. Tenuous though its position was becoming, it did continue to flail out against Freemasonry; and in Italy especially, Freemasons continued to suffer from its ministrations. Among the more prominent victims was Joseph Balsamo, better known as Count Cagliostro.

Born in Palermo in , Cagliostro travelled widely and was initiated into Freemasonry in London in He subsequently proceeded to devise his own brand, or rite, of Freemasonry, which he then attempted to disseminate across Europe. In , he arrived in Rome to seek an audience with Pope Pius VI, whom he imagined would be sympathetic towards his Masonic rite and embrace it to the benefit of the Church. This might appear to have been naive; but Cagliostro in fact found the Roman clergy extremely receptive to his evangelism, and he made friends with high-ranking figures in a number of Catholic institutions, including the Knights of Malta.

Encouraged by his success, he established his own Lodge in the Eternal City, which supposedly met at the palace of the Knights of Malta. Its membership is reported to have included not only knights and nobles, but also clerical officials, ecclesiastics and at least one cardinal.

The Pope, however, had already passed files pertaining to him on to the Holy Office. At the end of December , some seven months after his arrival in Rome, Cagliostro was arrested along with eight members of his Lodge, one of them American. On 21 March , the Holy Office condemned him to death for heresy — a sentence commuted by the Pope to life imprisonment. On 4 May , the Pope ordered all Cagliostro's documents and manuscripts, Masonic regalia and accoutrements, to be burned in the Piazza Santa Maria Minerva by the public hangman.

One dossier, containing stray papers, personal notes and letters, apparently escaped the flames. In the early s, an Italian author, Roberto Gervaso, requested permission to examine this material, but was denied access to it by the head of the Holy Office. After being expelled from seminary for allegedly outrageous conduct, Casanova, like Cagliostro, travelled widely and was initiated into Freemasonry in He was later to write that induction into a Lodge was a mandatory step in the education, development and career of any intelligent and well-bred young man who desired to make a mark in the world.

When he returned to his native Venice, Casanova was pounced on by the Holy Office, who accused him of impiety and magical practices. After first being coerced into spying on Masonic and other suspect activities, he was imprisoned. Eventually, in circumstances worthy of a swashbuckling thriller by Dumas, he managed to escape, and embarked on the career for which he subsequently became famous.

Casanova's posthumously published memoirs established his reputation as an adventurer, a hustler, a confidence man, a seducer and amorist on a scale worthy of Don Juan. But he was also a gifted self-publicist, with an ego that cast a shadow the size of a blimp; and his memoirs unquestionably contain much exaggeration, much hyperbole, much poetic licence. Quite apart from their lavish self-advertisement, however, they offer a profoundly insightful and revealing panorama of the manners and mores of the age.

What is more, Casanova was a talented writer. He produced historical works in Italian and one phantasmagorical novel of some literary merit in French. In , he published a detailed account of his imprisonment by the Holy Office and his escape, Histoire de ma fuite des prisons de Venise, which constitutes one of the most valuable sources available on the workings of the Holy Office during the latter part of the eighteenth century.

That power, however, was soon to be curtailed and abrogated. The French Revolution, the revolutionary movements that ensued in Italy and Napoleon's invasion of the peninsula all left the Church, the Papacy and the Holy Office badly shaken. So, too, did the French plundering of the Vatican's archives, much of which remains to this day in Paris, in the Arsenal Library. In several Italian cities, Freemasons sought vengeance on their former persecutors, and more than a few Inquisitors were obliged to flee lynch mobs.

With Napoleon's fall, the Church, instigated by the Holy Office, resumed its self-proclaimed vendetta against Freemasonry, a campaign that would become progressively more rabid and more paranoid as the nineteenth century unfolded.

In , after Napoleon's first abdication, a new Bull against Freemasonry was promulgated. Pope Pius IX, who was subsequently to declare himself infallible, issued an encyclical condemning Freemasonry in , his first year of office, and followed it with further condemnations on no fewer than seven separate occasions.

In , he published an encyclical that constituted the most virulent denunciation of Freemasonry ever to issue from the Church. Read before all church doors at the Pope's explicit orders, the encyclical begins: The human race is divided into two different and opposing parties… The one is the Kingdom of God on earth — that is, the Church of Jesus Christ; the other is the kingdom of Satan.

Freemasons say openly what they had already in secret devised for a long time… that the very spiritual power of the Pope ought to be taken away, and the divine institution of the Roman Pontificate ought to disappear from the world. In the late nineteenth century, during the pontificate of Leo XIII, two ingenious confidence tricksters are seen wandering about the provinces of southern France.

They are dressed in clerical garb and carry with them a carefully prepared and detailed list of wealthy Catholics residing in the vicinity. They present themselves at the doors of these victims, gain admission and recount — in what purports to be the most urgent and portentous secrecy — a horrifying story. The figure seen at intervals on the balcony of Saint Peter's is not, they report, the Pope. He is in fact a double, a lookalike, an impostor installed by means of a pernicious Masonic conspiracy.

The real Holy Pontiff has been kidnapped by Freemasons. He is being held hostage under strict guard at some undisclosed location. Unless a stipulated ransom is raised in time, he will be executed, and the entire Papacy will be taken over by Freemasonry.

In consequence, loyal and devout Catholics are being approached discreetly to make donations to the Pope's ransom. Not surprisingly, the two confidence tricksters make off with a tidy fortune. Such stories were not uncommon at the time. There is no way of knowing which of several Gide might have had in mind, or how much artistic licence he took with the actual facts of the scam. But his narrative bears eloquent testimony to the trepidation about Freemasonry fostered by the Holy Office at the time, and the delusional paranoia to which the Church and its adherents were prone.

That paranoia has continued to the present day. As recently as the early s, lavishly printed four-page broadsheets from a hardline Catholic organisation were shoved through letter-boxes in London's Belgravia, once again alleging a nefarious Masonic conspiracy bent on world domination — and erroneously citing as Free-masons men such as Earl Mountbatten of Burma, who were never Freemasons at all. Thory, Acta Latomorum, I, p.

Eram tempos em que os acionistas de multinacionais de consumo exigiam uma presença maior em mercados emergentes. Comprar a Ypióca significaria dobrar, de uma só vez, de tamanho no Brasil.

O cerne do problema é o próprio Telles — que vendeu, mas ainda manda muito em sua ex-empresa. Para complicar um pouco mais as coisas, a Diageo topou que Telles decida a que preço vai fornecer. Ou seja, ele cobra quanto quer. A Diageo pode até comprar de outros fornecedores. A Diageo acabou comprando de Telles. Representantes da Diageo nas negociações lembram que a irredutibilidade de Telles nas reuniões semanais que ocorriam em Fortaleza os levava ao desespero.

Em determinado momento, desapareceu por duas semanas. Jogo duro O jogo duro de Telles e a avidez da Diageo resultaram num negócio que, mesmo para os padrões eufóricos da época, parecia ter custado caro demais aos ingleses.

A venda de cachaça no país vem caindo desde — o faturamento e o volume de vendas encolheram. Com a estratégia definida de marca premium, aumentos de preço e esforço nas exportações, as vendas subiram. Todos os altos executivos envolvidos diretamente na compra da Ypióca deixaram a Diageo.

Walsh e o ex-presidente para a América Latina Randy Millan se aposentaram. O presidente no Brasil, Otto von Sothen, saiu depois de seis meses e hoje preside a fabricante de tubos Tigre ele afirma ter deixado a empresa para tocar negócios pessoais. Mas a dependência do fornecimento do ex-dono da Ypióca ainda é grande. Texto de Tatiana Bautzer publicado em "Exame" de 20 de agosto de Adaptado e ilustrado para ser postado por Leopoldo Costa.

Far from being a modern invention of the craft beer scene, pumpkin beers have a long history in the US. Samuel Stearns' The American herbal; or, Materia medica published in , name-checked pumpkin beer just after porter and ale. Stearns considered pumpkin beer especially healthful, noting: Pumpkin beer and brown sugar were more easily found in early America than their all-malt and refined counterparts, so they became part of the go-to recipe.

But the main reason pumpkin was adopted as a beer ingredient during the early colonial period was simple availability—pumpkins were a native plant one completely unknown to most Europeans before the 16th century , while good malt was not so readily accessible—fermentable sugars had to be found where they could, and in the first pumpkin beers, the meat of the pumpkin took the place of malt entirely.

Indeed, the role of the pumpkin in brewing and as a means of general sustenance was a key subject of a satirical song that has become known as "America's first folk song"— first written in , but rediscovered by folksong collectors of the 18th and 19th centuries: Hey down, down, hey down derry down Pumpkin beer continued to be a staple throughout the 18th century—one of the most oft-quoted recipes for pumpkin beer dates to —but its popularity began to wane by the early 19th century as the pumpkin itself began to be viewed as something quaint and rustic, and as access to quality malts became commonplace.

It re-appeared as a beer ingredient in the colonial revival of the s this time as a flavoring agent, as opposed to a full-blown pumpkin beer , but never regained its previous ubiquity.

Modern pumpkin beers tend to aim for more of a 'pumpkin pie in a glass' as opposed to 'pumpkin in a glass' aesthetic; spices such as nutmeg and cloves are very common ingredients—but where did the notion of reviving pumpkin beer originate? The honor goes to Buffalo Bill's Brewery, which has been making their America's Original Pumpkin Beer since the late s, using one of George Washington's recipes as an inspiration.

Although the experimental batches used pumpkin as an ingredient, the commercial version stuck with pumpkin pie spices instead though there is now an Imperial Pumpkin Ale with actual pumpkin. Other modern pumpkin beers do use pumpkins—Brooklyn Brewery's Post Road Pumpkin Ale evokes the 18th century in its name using the name of the colonial road between Boston and New York and includes pumpkin in the recipe, while Dogfish Head's Punkin Ale also adds pumpkin to the mix.

With more than pumpkin beers to choose from today, modern drinkers may not be tasting anything like their beer's colonial ancestors, but it's still a nice and now, a tasty nod to brewing history. By Lisa Grimm available at "http: Noah We're born naked. In Western societies our baby nakedness is quickly covered with pretty clothes.

Small children are often allowed to run around naked at home, but by the time they're about three years old they've been carefully taught to keep their private parts covered. While they are not yet aware of the fact that the genitals are for reproduction and fun, not just to pee with, they've learned that it's wrong to display them in public.

The puritanical view that public nudity is sinful, and in most places criminal, stems from the time Eve fell for the snake's spiel about how it would make her and Adam like gods if they ate the forbidden fruit.

Adam and Eve at first, we're told, "were naked Noah, who owned a vineyard, had imbibed too much wine when one of his sons, Ham, walked into the tent and saw his father naked in a drunken stupor. Ham told his two brothers, who entered the tent backward with a robe over their shoulders to cover their father. When Noah sobered up and learned of Ham's violation of the sancrosanct taboo, he was so incensed that he condemned Ham to a life of servitude, a "servant of servants.

Probably the first nudist cult anywhere in the world was established by the Egyptian pharaoh Amenhotep IV and his wife, Queen Nefertiti, who were avid sunbathers. Amenhotep IV, at the age of 24, was crowned in BC, and moved the capitol from Thebes to a new location he named Akhtaton.

The young king was an exceptionally independent thinker, and he had the support of his wife. He established a new religion based on the worship of only one god, which he called Aton, meaning "Disk of the Sun," and changed his name to Ikhnaton, meaning "pleases Aton.

Ikhnaton and Nefertiti and their seven daughters went naked in the palace, the gardens, and even, it is said, into the streets. They had temples built with exposure to the sun where their followers could worship in the nude and let their naked bodies be bathed in the sacred,life-giving rays of Aton.

The deposed priests of the old religion of Amon-Re were understandably furious. When Ikhnaton died, the throne went to a son-in-law, Senkenre, who after a few years was succeeded by another son-in-law, Tutankhaten, now known as "King Tut. There is speculation that remnant followers of the monotheistic Aton religion may have influenced Moses during his formative years in Egypt. Nakedness was a way of life in sports. Olympic athletes performed completely naked. The first Olympic festival of record was held in BC.

Irrepressible physical fitness buffs, they built and used gymnasiums, from the Greek word gymnos, meaning "naked. The Spartans were physical fitness fanatics, and because the young people were encouraged to go with little clothing and no artificial adornment in public, Sparta was, in effect, a clothing-optional camp. Women of Crete wore attractive clothing, but it was stylish to leave the breasts uncovered. They used cosmetics liberally, including the practice of enhancing the beauty of their breasts by applying lipstick to the nipples.

The Romans copied many of the Greek customs, including the practice of exercising in the nude, and indulging communally in the famous Roman baths. They participated in Greek games, adopted the gymnasium for games and physical fitness, and acquired some of the aesthetic fascination for the beauty of the human body that had reached a peak of perfection with the Greeks.

Jesus was crucified nude "They parted his garments, casting lots" in accordance with the Roman custom of executing people in public as cruelly as possible and in a way that deprived them of all dignity.

Exercise was to be obtained through hard work or fighting, for which clothing was required, and anyone contemplating the unthinkable act of bathing nude in the sun would be guilty of the double transgression of immorality and sloth. The website is hosted at The number of Internal Link 0 and the number of External Link is Usage Site Ping Time: Not Usage Meta Icon: Not Usage Meta Image: Not Usage Responsive mobile compatible: Not Usage Code Type: Not Used External Link: Big Star Service S.

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